Swerea Kimab Ab
Swerea Kimab Ab
Bengtson A.,Swerea Kimab Ab
Spectrochimica Acta - Part B Atomic Spectroscopy | Year: 2017
This review is focused on a comparison of LIBS with the two most common plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy (OES) techniques for analysis of metals; spark OES and glow discharge (GD) OES. It is shown that these two techniques have only minor differences in analytical performance. An important part of the paper reviews a direct comparison of the analytical figures of merit for bulk analysis of steels using spark and LIBS sources. The comparison was carried out using one instrument with interchangeable sources, eliminating differences related to the optical system and detectors. It was found that the spark provides slightly better analytical figures of merit. The spark analysis is considerably faster, the simple design of the spark stand has enabled complete automation, both properties of great importance in the metallurgical industry for routine analysis. The analysis of non-metallic inclusions (NMI) with spark and LIBS is presented, in the case of the spark this has become known as Pulse Distribution Analysis (PDA). A very significant difference between the techniques is that the electrical spark typically evaporates ~ 100 times more material than a single laser pulse, resulting in complete evaporation of an NMI present in the evaporated metal. The major advantage of LIBS is that it is localised with very good lateral resolution. The major advantages of spark is that it is much faster (can be done simultaneous with the bulk analysis) and easier to quantify. Compositional Depth Profiling (CDP) is compared for GD-OES and LIBS. It is shown that for applications where GD-OES is well suited, e.g. coated metallic sheet, GD-OES still performs slightly better than LIBS. Similar to the case of NMI analysis, the major advantage of LIBS is the great lateral resolution. This allows elemental surface mapping, as well as CDP of very small areas on μm scale. One further advantage of LIBS is that samples of almost any material, shape and size can be analysed, whereas GD-OES has only limited capabilities for non-flat and small samples. A general conclusion of this review is that LIBS is not likely to replace spark and GD-OES in the foreseeable future, for applications where these techniques are well suited. On the other hand several new applications, particularly in the field of on-line monitoring of industrial processes, are making great inroads for LIBS in the metallurgical and manufacturing industries. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: BSG-SME | Phase: SME-1 | Award Amount: 1.20M | Year: 2011
The SignaStir project will develop an effective in-process quality assurance system for the inspection of friction stir welds (FSW) predominantly used in the manufacture of aluminium rolling stock and marine vessels. The SignaStir system will determine the unique and holistic weld quality signature. There is currently no capable inspection system available on the market either as a stand-alone unit or integrated with a welding machine to perform this task. Welding is an enabling manufacturing technology for joining materials, which directly affects cost, safety and reliability and therefore has significant economic impact. Production and supply of flawed or defective welds is unacceptable and may result in unsafe products of low structural integrity. To overcome the technical barriers to development of such an inspection system an SME partnership will require the services of research and technology providing organisations to deliver precompetitive research leading to the development of the product. There is a need for a low cost welding method, which can overcome the limitations of conventional fusion welding techniques. FSW has many economic, environmental and safety advantages over conventional welding but is a relatively new development and potential users require added confidence to make the initial capital investment required. The full benefit of the FSW process can only be achieved through application where weld quality is guaranteed to be correct each and every time. When developed the SignaStir system will give European manufacturers added confidence in their welded products and reduce costly off-line inspection of production parts. Scrap and re-work rates will be reduced as quality issues will be detected immediately after welding by the SignaStir system.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-CSA | Phase: Fission-2013-2.1.1 | Award Amount: 10.28M | Year: 2013
Preparing NUGENIA for HORIZON 2020 The objective of the NUGENIA\ project is to support the NUGENIA Association in its role to coordinate and integrate European research on safety of the Gen II and III nuclear installations in order to better ensure their safe long term operation, integrating private and public efforts, and initiating international collaboration that will create added value in its activity fields. The project consists of two parts, the first part being a Coordination and Support Action and the second part a Collaborative Project. The aim of the first part, the Coordination and Support Action, is to establish an efficient, transparent and high quality management structure to carry out the planning and management of R&D including project calls, proposal evaluation, project follow-up dissemination and valorisation of R&D results in the area of safety of existing Gen II and future Gen III nuclear installations. The preparatory work will encompass governance, organizational, legal and financial work, as well as the establishment of annual work plans, with the aim to structure public-public and/or private-public joint programming enabling NUGENIA to develop into the integrator of the research in the respective field in Europe. The management structure will build on the existing organisation of the NUGENIA Association, currently grouping over 70 nuclear organisations from research and industry (utilities, vendors and small and medium enterprises) active in R&D. In the second part, the Collaborative project, one thematic call for research proposals will be organized among the technical areas of plant safety and risk assessment, severe accident prevention and management, core and reactor performance, integrity assessment of systems, structures and components, innovative Generation III design and harmonisation of procedures and methods. The call will take place one year after the start of the project. The call will implement the priorities recognised in the NUGENIA Roadmap, in line with the Sustainable Nuclear Energy Technology Platform (SNETP) and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) strategies. The research call which is going to be organised within the project is open to all eligible organisations. The NUGENIA\ project will benefit from the experience of the NUGENIA Association member organisations on managing national research programmes and from the track record of the NUGENIA project portfolio.
Tidblad J.,Swerea Kimab Ab
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2012
Climatic parameters and pollution data from the 6FP NOAHs ARK project 'Global Climate Change Impact on Built Heritage and Cultural Landscapes' together with chloride deposition data have been used to predict atmospheric corrosion of metals in 2010-2039 and 2070-2099. Maps of carbon steel and zinc show that future atmospheric corrosion of metals in Europe are dominated by the effects of chloride deposition in coastal and near-coastal areas. The change can in extreme cases be as high as one corrosivity category and in coastal areas of southern Europe corrosion can be higher than the highest values experienced today in Europe. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Jonsson M.,Swerea Kimab Ab |
Persson D.,Swerea Kimab Ab
Corrosion Science | Year: 2010
Even though magnesium, as a structure metal, is most commonly used in an atmospheric environment, most investigations of magnesium are performed in solution. In the present work the atmospheric corrosion of two commonly used magnesium alloys, AZ91D and AM50, has been investigated from the initial stages up to the most severe forms of corrosion. A detailed investigation of the morphology of a corrosion attack and its development over time shows that the atmospheric corrosion mechanism is similar for the two alloys. Based on these findings a schematic model of the initial atmospheric corrosion attack on AZ91D is presented and discussed. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
M'Saoubi R.,Seco Tools AB |
Chandrasekaran H.,Swerea Kimab Ab
International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology | Year: 2011
Cutting tool temperature distribution was mapped using the IR-CCD technique during machining of carbon steel AISI 3115 and stainless steel AISI 316L under orthogonal cutting conditions using flat-face geometry inserts. The effect of work material treatment on tool temperature was investigated, and the results showed that AISI 3115 in heat-treated state displayed higher tool temperature than the as-rolled state. Stainless steel 316L with high sulphur content (0.027 wt.%) and calcium treatment displayed lower cutting tool temperature than the variant with low sulphur (0.009 wt.%). The experimental results were compared with theoretical tool temperature distributions based on a modified version of Komanduri and Hou's analytical model. In particular, variable frictional heat source and secondary shear were introduced and modelling of the tool stress distribution on rake surface was also considered. © 2011 Springer-Verlag London Limited.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: JTI-CS | Phase: JTI-CS-2012-1-SAGE-02-014 | Award Amount: 873.24K | Year: 2013
Green and sustainable engines require accurate and well documented material data for safe operation of the engines at optimum efficiency. The SAGE project aims at demonstrating open rotor engines and technologies to reduce fuel consumption, weight and increased efficiency of engine components. Structural integrity and safety of engine critical parts have to be considered with regard to design, manufacturing aspects and in-service maintenance and overhaul. The engine operating conditions, thermal and mechanical loads, material properties and other influencing parameters are affecting the Approved Life of the component. Extensive analysis, component & engine tests, and inspections during both component manufacturing and in-service have to be performed for verification. In particular, the regulations required for critical parts to fulfil appropriate damage tolerance criteria has to be considered, and the potential for failure from material, manufacturing and service induced anomalies within the Approved Life of the part. This means that the potential existence of various imperfections, defects and flaws in the component are recognized and are due to material issues, component design and manufacturing. This situation can be handled through the incorporation of fracture resistant design, process control and Non-destructive Testing (NDT). In fabricated components and structures different visual inspection and NDT methods are being used for weld inspection. The quality of the welds will determine the fatigue life of a component. This project will focus on welds made in IN718, both laser welds and TIG welds. Before testing the specimens will be NDT tested (WP2), then high cycle fatigue tested (WP4), creep fatigue tested (WP5), fracture surfaces examined (WP3), statistical analysis performed (WP6) and finally the lifing model developed (WP7). The model will then be put to use by the topic manager for design of green and sustainable engines.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: NMBP-08-2016 | Award Amount: 9.02M | Year: 2016
6 of the European carmakers (DAIMLER, VW, TME, CRF, VOLVO, Opel), under the coordination of EUCAR, have joined forces to commonly address the high cost issue of innovations in vehicle lightweighting, having identified it as the major bottleneck towards their implementation in vehicle series and mass production. The AffordabLe LIghtweight Automobiles AlliaNCE (ALLIANCE) has the ambition to develop novel advanced materials (steel, aluminium, hybrid) and production technologies, aiming at an average 25% weight reduction over 100k units/year, at costs of <3 /kg. Additionally, ALLIANCE will develop a mass-optimizer software tool and a multi-parameter design optimisation methodology and process, aiming at an accelerated pre-assessment of technologies over existing designs in a holistic framework. ALLIANCE will work on 8 different demonstrators of real vehicle models, 6 of which will be physically tested, aiming at market application by OEMs within 6 years from project end (in 2025). A transferability and scalability methodology will also be developed for results replication across other vehicle components and models in other segments. ALLIANCE aims at becoming a central hub for innovation in lightweight design in Europe. To do so, it will establish an open inclusive framework towards external centres and clusters in this field, involving them in ALLIANCE development through an open lightweight design contest and dedicated workshops.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: JTI-CS | Phase: JTI-CS-2013-2-SAGE-01-002 | Award Amount: 600.00K | Year: 2014
Reduction of the fuel consumption and emission of NOX and CO2 by jet engines is a priority of the ACARE SRA 2020 objectives. The development of an environmentally friendly aircraft engine (SAGE1) considers using lightweight and efficient turbine components. Within the objectives of open rotor development in SAGE1, activities are underway to develop new technologies for rotating structures. The rotating structure transmits the torque generated by the engine to the propellersand is subjected to the high temperature exhaust gas from the turbine. It is likely that frames will be made as a weld assembly consisting of cast parts in a newly developed y strengthened nickel based superalloy. However, it is a challenge to cast these alloys because they were primarily developed in wrought form. Currently, cast versions of low content y strengthened Ni alloys are widely investigated however failure analysis and damage mechanisms are not fully explored. Thus the aim of this project is to complex failure analysis of new alloy which is an enabler material for manufacture turbine components exposed at high temperature. In order to conduct a comprehensive investigation of damage mechanism the following objectives have been defined: a) optimizing the casting process parameters and heat treatment of alloy for a range of microstructures, b) experimental studies of mechanical behavior of newly developed alloy with different grain size under different loading and temperature regimes during monotonous and fatigue tests, c) determination and characterisation of damage mechanisms by advanced microstructural characterisation techniques. The consortium consists of technical university (WUT) and two certified, modern research centres equipped with unique devices providing high quality testing services, which offer new solutions to contemporary aviation (IoA and KIMAB). Such a structured consortium will provide complex expertise abilities of basic research studies and experimental trials.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-ITN-2008 | Award Amount: 3.25M | Year: 2009
Any material in contact with water or moisture during its life-cycle is rapidly colonised by microbial species which can be the source of severe deterioration processes, such as microbially influenced corrosion (MIC), also called biocorrosion. The annual direct and derived costs of corrosion are estimated to be around 4% of the GNP of developed countries, of which 10-20% are related to biocorrosion. Today the main treatment against biocorrosion is the massive application of biocides that lead to significant environmental pollution. Currently, European research teams are concentrating efforts on biocorrosion, but there is a lack of harmonisation and collaboration due to the differences of approaches, analytical methodologies and disciplines involved, from chemistry through materials to biology. The objectives of BIOCOR are: 1) to develop a new profile of researcher, capable to address and manage all aspects of scientific and/or industrial problems related to MIC and 2) to provide the European industries with alternative multidisciplinary expertise in this area. The problem-oriented approach developed in the project is essential when dealing with such a complex topic as MIC. This pioneer training programme will open the road to new generations of research project managers capable to lead groups of experts from different disciplines and countries. Such results will ultimately lead to increase the competitiveness of the European scientific and industrial communities. The objectives will be achieved by: 1) linking up 10 research teams and 4 associated partners from 9 different countries during 4 years, from both scientific and industrial sectors, and 2) by implementing a new research methodology based on multidisciplinary and combined analytical approaches, and a close intersectorial arrow From the field through the lab to the field. The project will offer an overall effort of 488 person-months of which 81% will be dedicated to ESRs.