Jurkow D.,Wroclaw University of Technology |
Stiernstedt J.,Swerea IVF AB
Ceramics International | Year: 2014
Influence of sintering conditions of High Temperature Co-fired Ceramics on surface roughness, density and shrinkage of the sintered samples is presented in this paper. The investigations were conducted using Taguchi Design of the experiment. Mathematical statistics was applied in the estimation of the optimal process conditions. The estimation accuracy was verified by real measurements. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Techna Group S.r.l. All rights reserved.
Hagfeldt A.,Uppsala University |
Hagfeldt A.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology |
Hagfeldt A.,Dalian University of Technology |
Boschloo G.,Uppsala University |
And 4 more authors.
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2010
Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) offer the possibilities to design solar cells with a large flexibility in shape, color, and transparency. DSC research groups have been established around the world with biggest activities in Europe, Japan, Korea, China, and Australia. The sun emits light with a range of wavelengths from the ultraviolet and visible to the infrared. It peaks in the visible, resembling the spectrum of a blackbody at a temperature of 5760 K. It is, however, influenced by atmospheric absorption and the position of the sun. The advent of heteroleptic ruthenium complexes furnished with an antenna function has taken the performance of the DSC to a new level. Two examples of these dyes are Z991 and C101. Compared with the classical DSC Ru dyes, their extinction coefficients are higher and the spectral response is shifted to the red. The positions of the energy levels at the oxide/dye/electrolyte interface are fundamentally important to the function of the DSC.
Swerea IVF AB | Date: 2015-06-16
Swerea Ivf Ab | Date: 2012-04-13
Dehestani M.,Swerea IVF AB |
Dehestani M.,Novo Nordisk AS |
Ilver L.,Chalmers University of Technology |
Adolfsson E.,Swerea IVF AB
Journal of Biomedical Materials Research - Part B Applied Biomaterials | Year: 2012
Among bioceramics, zirconia (ZrO 2) and alumina (Al 2O 3) possess exceptional mechanical properties suitable for load-bearing and wear-resistant applications but the poor bioactivity of these materials is the major concern when bonding and integration to the living bone are desired. This article investigates two different approaches and their underlying mechanisms to improve the bioactivity of zirconia (3Y-TZP) and a zirconia composite with alumina (10Ce-TZP/Al 2O 3). Chemical treatment approach applied on 3Y-TZP where the substrates were soaked in 5M H 3PO 4 to create chemically functional groups on the surface for inducing apatite nucleation. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to detect chemical changes and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to monitor phase changes on the surface before and after acid treatment. Alternate soaking approach applied on 10Ce-TZP/Al 2O 3 consisted of soaking the composite substrates in CaCl 2 and Na 2HPO 4 solutions alternately to make a precursor for apatite formation. The bioactivity was evaluated by apatite-forming ability of surface-treated materials in simulated body fluid (SBF). Both methods resulted in the formation of hydroxyapatite on the surface of materials; however, alternate soaking approach showed to be a simpler, faster, and more effective method than the chemical treatment approach for enhancing the bioactivity of zirconia materials. © 2012 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.