Sweet Briar College is a liberal arts women's college in Sweet Briar, Virginia, United States, about 12 miles north of Lynchburg, Virginia. The school's Latin motto translates as: "She who has earned the rose may bear it."The college is on 3,250 acres donated by the founding family of Indiana Fletcher Williams. It is accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools. Wikipedia.
News Article | December 19, 2016
EAST LANSING, Mich. - A centuries-old herbal medicine, discovered by Chinese scientists and used to effectively treat malaria, has been found to potentially aid in the treatment of tuberculosis and may slow the evolution of drug resistance. In a promising study led by Robert Abramovitch, a Michigan State University microbiologist and TB expert, the ancient remedy artemisinin stopped the ability of TB-causing bacteria, known as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, to become dormant. This stage of the disease often makes the use of antibiotics ineffective. The study is published in the journal Nature Chemical Biology. "When TB bacteria are dormant, they become highly tolerant to antibiotics," Abramovitch said, an assistant professor in the College of Veterinary Medicine. "Blocking dormancy makes the TB bacteria more sensitive to these drugs and could shorten treatment times." One-third of the world's population is infected with TB and the disease killed 1.8 million people in 2015, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Mycobacterium tuberculosis, or Mtb, needs oxygen to thrive in the body. The immune system starves this bacterium of oxygen to control the infection. Abramovitch and his team found that artemisinin attacks a molecule called heme, which is found in the Mtb oxygen sensor. By disrupting this sensor and essentially turning it off, the artemisinin stopped the disease's ability to sense how much oxygen it was getting. "When the Mtb is starved of oxygen, it goes into a dormant state, which protects it from the stress of low-oxygen environments," Abramovitch said. "If Mtb can't sense low oxygen, then it can't become dormant and will die." Abramovitch indicated that dormant TB can remain inactive for decades in the body. But if the immune system weakens at some point, it can wake back up and spread. Whether it wakes up or stays 'asleep' though, he said TB can take up to six months to treat and is one of the main reasons the disease is so difficult to control. "Patients often don't stick to the treatment regimen because of the length of time it takes to cure the disease," he said. "Incomplete therapy plays an important role in the evolution and spread of multi-drug resistant TB strains." He said the research could be key to shortening the course of therapy because it can clear out the dormant, hard-to-kill bacteria. This could lead to improving patient outcomes and slowing the evolution of drug-resistant TB. After screening 540,000 different compounds, Abramovitch also found five other possible chemical inhibitors that target the Mtb oxygen sensor in various ways and could be effective in treatment as well. "Two billion people worldwide are infected with Mtb," Abramovitch said. "TB is a global problem that requires new tools to slow its spread and overcome drug resistance. This new method of targeting dormant bacteria is exciting because it shows us a new way to kill it." The National Institutes of Health, MSU AgBioResearch and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation funded the research. Other MSU researchers involved in the study include Huiqing Zheng, Christopher Colvin and Benjamin Johnson in the Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, as well as collaborators from Sweet Briar College and the University of Michigan. Michigan State University has been working to advance the common good in uncommon ways for more than 150 years. One of the top research universities in the world, MSU focuses its vast resources on creating solutions to some of the world's most pressing challenges, while providing life-changing opportunities to a diverse and inclusive academic community through more than 200 programs of study in 17 degree-granting colleges.
Gottlieb D.A.,Sweet Briar College |
Rescorla R.A.,University of Pennsylvania
Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes | Year: 2010
D. A. Gottlieb (2008) reported finding no effects of number of conditioning trials in a series of between-subjects magazine approach experiments, when number of sessions and total training time were held constant. This article reports 7 comparable within-subject experiments that looked for effects of number of trials in a variety of conditioning preparations. Experiments 1-3 detected effects of multiplying the number of trials by factors of 4 and 8 in a conditioned magazine approach procedure in which visual and auditory stimuli were paired with food. Experiments 4A and 4B detected effects of a factor of 4 trials in a conditioned flavor preference procedure in which flavors were paired with polycose. Experiments 5 and 6 detected an effect of a factor of 3 trials in a conditioned taste aversion procedure and in a fear conditioning procedure, respectively. Results suggest that variables other than number of trials might play important roles in determining the acquisition of conditioned responding, but effects of number of trials can be detected with sensitive enough procedures. © 2010 American Psychological Association.
Brower L.P.,Sweet Briar College |
Taylor O.R.,University of Kansas |
Williams E.H.,Hamilton College |
Slayback D.A.,Science Systems And Applications Inc. |
And 2 more authors.
Insect Conservation and Diversity | Year: 2012
During the 2009-2010 overwintering season and following a 15-year downward trend, the total area in Mexico occupied by the eastern North American population of overwintering monarch butterflies reached an all-time low. Despite an increase, it remained low in 2010-2011. Although the data set is small, the decline in abundance is statistically significant using both linear and exponential regression models. Three factors appear to have contributed to reduce monarch abundance: degradation of the forest in the overwintering areas; the loss of breeding habitat in the United States due to the expansion of GM herbicide-resistant crops, with consequent loss of milkweed host plants, as well as continued land development; and severe weather. This decline calls into question the long-term survival of the monarchs' migratory phenomenon. Resúmen. 1.Durante la temporada invernal 2009-2010, y siguiendo una tendencia a la baja de 15 años, la superficie total ocupada por mariposas monarca en México, provenientes del este América del Norte, llegó a su punto más bajo. A pesar de su incremento, dicha superficie siguió siendo baja en 2010-2011. 2.Aunque que el conjunto de datos disponibles es aún pequeño, esta disminución de la abundancia de mariposas es estadísticamente significativa, tanto si se usan modelos de regresión lineales como exponenciales. 3.Hay tres factores que parecen haber contribuido con esta tendencia de reducción del número de mariposas: la degradación de bosque en las áreas de invernación en México; la pérdida de hábitat de reproducción en los Estados Unidos, debido a la expansión de cultivos genéticamente modificados resistentes a herbicidas, con la consiguiente pérdida de las plantas hospederas de algodoncillo, y por continuos cambios en el uso del suelo no favorables para ellas; y, las recientes condiciones climáticas severas. Esta disminución hace que nos cuestionemos sobre la posibilidad de supervivencia a largo plazo del fenómeno migratorio de las mariposas monarca. © 2011 The Authors. Insect Conservation and Diversity © 2011 The Royal Entomological Society.
Pendry L.F.,University of Exeter |
Salvatore J.,Sweet Briar College
Computers in Human Behavior | Year: 2015
There has been much debate surrounding the potential benefits and costs of online interaction. The present research argues that engagement with online discussion forums can have underappreciated benefits for users' well-being and engagement in offline civic action, and that identification with other online forum users plays a key role in this regard. Users of a variety of online discussion forums participated in this study. We hypothesized and found that participants who felt their expectations had been exceeded by the forum reported higher levels of forum identification. Identification, in turn, predicted their satisfaction with life and involvement in offline civic activities. Formal analyses confirmed that identification served as a mediator for both of these outcomes. Importantly, whether the forum concerned a stigmatized topic moderated certain of these relationships. Findings are discussed in the context of theoretical and applied implications. © 2015 The Authors.
Senadheera S.N.,University of Kansas |
Yousef A.L.,Sweet Briar College |
Givens R.S.,University of Kansas
Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry | Year: 2014
We have developed a new photoremovable protecting group for caging phosphates in the near UV. Diethyl 2-(4-hydroxy-1-naphthyl)- 2-oxoethyl phosphate (14a) quantitatively releases diethyl phosphate upon irradiation in aq MeOH or aq MeCN at 350 nm, with quantum efficiencies ranging from 0.021 to 0.067 depending on the solvent composition. The deprotection reactions originate from the triplet excited state, are robust under ambient conditions and can be carried on to 100% conversion. Similar results were found with diethyl 2-(4-methoxy-1-naphthyl)-2-oxoethyl phosphate (14b), although it was significantly less efficient compared with 14a. A key step in the deprotection reaction in aq MeOH is considered to be a Favorskii rearrangement of the naphthyl ketone motif of 14a,b to naphthylacetate esters 25 and 26. Disruption of the ketone-naphthyl ring conjugation significantly shifts the photoproduct absorption away from the effective incident wavelength for decaging of 14, driving the reaction to completion. The Favorskii rearrangement does not occur in aqueous acetonitrile although diethyl phosphate is released. Other substitution patterns on the naphthyl or quinolin-5-yl core, such as the 2,6-naphthyl 10 or 8-benzyloxyquinolin-5-yl 24 platforms, also do not rearrange by aryl migration upon photolysis and, therefore, do not proceed to completion. The 2,6-naphthyl ketone platform instead remains intact whereas the quinolin-5-yl ketone fragments to a much more complex, highly absorbing reaction mixture that competes for the incident light. © 2014 Senadheera et al; licensee Beilstein-Institut.
Jaeger T.R.,U.S. Navy |
Hyman S.D.,Sweet Briar College |
Kassim N.E.,U.S. Navy |
Lazio T.J.W.,Jet Propulsion Laboratory
Astronomical Journal | Year: 2012
We report the results of a low frequency radio variability and slow transient search using archival observations from the Very Long Array. We selected six 325MHz radio observations from the spring of 2006, each centered on the Spitzer-Space-Telescope Wide-area Infrared Extragalactic Survey (SWIRE) Deep Field: 1046+59. Observations were spaced between one day to threemonths, with a typical single-epoch peak flux sensitivity below 0.2mJybeam -1 near the field pointing center. We describe the observation parameters, data post-processing, and search methodology used to identify variable and transient emission. Our search revealed multiple variable sources and the presence of one, day-scale transient event with no apparent astronomical counterpart. This detection implies a transient rate of 1 1 event per 6.5 deg 2 per 72 observing hours in the direction of 1046+59 and an isotropic transient surface density Σ = 0.12 deg -2at 95% confidence for sources with average peak flux density higher than 2.1mJy over 12hr. © 2012. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.
Chavigny K.A.,Sweet Briar College
Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences | Year: 2014
Historians have recognized that men with drinking problems were not simply the passive subjects of medical reform and urban social control in Gilded Age and Progressive Era America but also actively shaped the partial medicalization of habitual drunkenness. The role played by evangelical religion in constituting their agency and in the historical process of medicalization has not been adequately explored, however. A post-Civil War evangelical reform culture supported institutions that treated inebriates along voluntary, religious lines and lionized former drunkards who publicly promoted a spiritual cure for habitual drunkenness. This article documents the historical development and characteristic practices of this reform culture, the voluntarist treatment institutions associated with it, and the hostile reaction that developed among medical reformers who sought to treat intemperance as a disease called inebriety. Those physicians' attempts to promote therapeutic coercion for inebriates as medical orthodoxy and to deprive voluntarist institutions of public recognition failed, as did their efforts to characterize reformed drunkards who endorsed voluntary cures as suffering from delusions arising from their disease. Instead, evangelical traditions continued to empower reformed drunkards to publicize their own views on their malady which laid the groundwork for continued public interest in alcoholics' personal narratives in the twentieth century. Meanwhile, institutions that accommodated inebriates' voluntarist preferences proliferated after 1890, marginalizing the medical inebriety movement and its coercive therapeutics. © The Author 2012.
Stine M.B.,Sweet Briar College
Catena | Year: 2016
Biogeomorphology is an increasingly popular field of study, but the approaches to biogeomorphic research and methods are not yet well developed. This research evaluated ecologic and geomorphic interactions after fire within the alpine treeline ecotone of Glacier National Park, Montana. Associations between soil conditions and vegetation, the effect of vegetation edges on soil characteristics, and the influence of quadrat size on select vegetation and soil variables were evaluated with the use of fieldwork and statistics. Of the 11 ecologic/soil variables compared, three were significantly correlated - soil compaction and krummholz density, soil loss and percent vegetation, and soil loss and burn severity. The ecologic edge between burned and unburned krummholz had significant influence on soil compaction, clast size, and effective soil depth patterns. Quadrat size did not have much influence on average results for either soil or vegetation variables. These findings highlight both the potential biogeomorphic interactions as well as interesting results that were not significant, and will contribute to the advancement of biogeomorphology. The results also provide novel information on alpine treeline ecotone response after fire. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.
Gottlieb D.A.,Sweet Briar College |
Prince E.B.,Sweet Briar College
Behavioural Processes | Year: 2012
Four conditioned approach experiments with rats assessed for effects of number of acquisition trials on extinction of conditioned responding, when number of acquisition sessions and total acquisition time were held constant. In Experiment 1, 32 trials per acquisition session led to more extinction responding than did 1 or 2 trials per session but less than did 4 trials per session. In Experiment 2, 2 trials per acquisition session led to more spontaneous recovery than did 32 trials per session. These latter findings are reminiscent of the overtraining extinction effect (OEE). Experiment 3 attempted to reduce the OEE with a preconditioning phase of partial reinforcement. Experiment 4 attempted to reduce the beneficial within-subject effects of increasing the number of acquisition trials on extinction observed by Gottlieb and Rescorla (2010) by extinguishing stimuli in different sessions. Overall, results suggest a procedural asymmetry: between-subject, increasing the number of trials between any pair of trials does not lead to greater persistence of responding during extinction; within-subject, it does. Results are discussed from an associative perspective, with a focus on explanations involving either frustration or comparator mechanisms, and from an information processing perspective, with a focus on Rate Estimation Theory. © 2012.
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: ARCHAEOLOGY | Award Amount: 102.73K | Year: 2011
With National Science Foundation support, Drs. Irina Panyushkina and Claudia Chang will conduct research to examine how climate, landscapes and prehistoric societies have interacted in Central Asia. This project involves expert collaborators and partnerships in the fields of archaeology, dendrochronology, paleoclimatology, palynology, ecology and hydrogeology in order to examine past climate changes and social transformations throughout a 2000-year prehistory of southern Kazakhstan. The research will generate new field-based datasets for modeling population dynamics, land use patterns in the grassland plains and forested mountains. The goal is to determine human response to climatic and environmental changes beginning at the transition from the Middle Bronze Age to the Late Bronze Age (ca. 1600 to 900 BC) and through the Iron Age (ca. 800 BC to AD 500).
The research is important because it will test the direct impact of climate change on ancient societies and cultures of the Eurasian Steppe. It will broaden perspectives on the nature of climate-human interactions which influenced the social evolution of the subsequent civilizations and led to the development of the modern world.
Archaeological data from Semirechye (the mountain zone of the Aral Basin) suggest that during the Late Bronze Age, small, dispersed populations of mobile pastoralists occupied the upland valleys and mountains near critical pasture and water resources. Later, in the first millennia BC, these marginal upland regions led to the formation of two distinct types of settlement: larger, aggregated populations of agro-pastoralists who utilized the fertile, arable land of alluvial fans and smaller, dispersed populations of transhumant pastoralists who relocated to high elevations. By ca. 100 AD, population density and storage capacity at villages was comparable to that of early sedentary farming villages in other world regions. A marked reduction in the number of Iron Age sites took place after AD 200 probably a result of out-migration or conflict. The research will interrelate the archaeological datasets with sophisticated reconstructions of climate variability. These integrated data shall provide key insights into the adaptive responses of ancient populations to climate and environmental changes.
This multi-disciplinary project includes: (1) archaeological survey and site testing; (2) geophysical settlement surveys using a magnetometer; (3) C14 wiggle-match and tree-ring dating; (4) multi-scale climate and environment reconstructions from tree-ring and pollen proxies, and corresponding ice-cores. The assembled lines of evidence will be used to estimate the impact of climate change on population size and landscape productivity in this region. Furthermore, it will document the social and economic factors within Iron Age society that led to possible environmental stress such as the depletion of water sources, wood fuel and soil fertility.
The broader impacts include 1) graduate students field and state-of-art training in the management and interpretation of large and complex data sets, and 2) strong international collaborations between the archaeological and environmental science communities of US, UK, Kazakhstan, Germany, Hungary and Russia.