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Norrköping, Sweden

Nagata T.,Karolinska Institutet | Nagata T.,Kyushu University | Takamori A.,Kurume University | Berg H.-Y.,Karolinska Institutet | And 2 more authors.
BMC Public Health | Year: 2012

Background: The increasing number of older road users represents a public health issue because older individuals are more susceptible to traffic injury and mortality than the general population. This study investigated the association between socio-demographic factors and traffic injury and traffic mortality for the general population and among older road users in Japan. Methods. An ecological study was conducted using national data in Japan. Multivariate regression methods were applied to investigate the association of traffic injury and traffic mortality for the general population and among older road users with significant demographic, economic, road traffic, and medical/cultural factors. Results: Income per capita, total road length, and alcohol consumption per person were significantly associated with traffic injury and traffic mortality both for the general population and among older road users in Japan. Income per capita and alcohol consumption per person were negatively associated with traffic mortality for both groups. Meanwhile, for both groups, income per capita was positively associated with traffic injury, while total road length and alcohol consumption per person were negatively associated with traffic injury. Conclusions: The effects of socio-demographic factors on traffic injury and traffic mortality in Japan were similar for both the general population and older road users. The study results suggest that injury preventive measures designed for the general population will be beneficial also for older road users in Japan. © 2012 Nagata et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Bidar L.H.,Sweco Infrastructure AB | Carlsson L.,Swedish Transport Agency | Rasmussen S.,Soren Rasmussen
19th Intelligent Transport Systems World Congress, ITS 2012 | Year: 2012

As required by the EFC Directive (2004/52/EC) and EETS Decision (2009/750/EC) an EETS Provider shall perform verification of the interoperability constituent (OBE) within each EETS Toll Domain. The EETS Toll Domains within Norway, Sweden, Denmark and Austria are cooperating in an EFC interoperability service named EasyGo. The EasyGo Toll Chargers shall make available test facilities and support the EETS Provider in the OBE suitability for use process. The paper presents the concept and benefits of the EasyGo cooperation for the planning and performance of the EETS Suitability for use test. Source

Monarrez-Espino J.,Karolinska Institutet | Moller J.,Karolinska Institutet | Berg H.-Y.,Karolinska Institutet | Berg H.-Y.,Swedish Transport Agency | And 2 more authors.
Accident Analysis and Prevention | Year: 2013

Aim To assess the epidemiological evidence associating the use of analgesics with the occurrence of road traffic crashes in senior drivers including a meta-analysis with specific focus on opioids. Methods Systematic literature review of articles published between 1991 and 2012 retrieved from major databases using relevant key words. Eligible articles were fully reviewed and the main characteristics and results summarized. The methodological quality was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Heterogeneity tests and forest and funnel plots were used as part of the meta-analysis on opioids. Results From the potentially eligible articles, nine were selected (4 case-control, 1 case-crossover, and 4 cohort studies) of which four were of medium and five of high quality; seven investigated opioids and four non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Crash involvement (n = 7) rather than responsibility (n = 2) was investigated. Age and sex were the most common covariates adjusted for. Both opioids and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs showed mixed results including differences across estimates between and within studies. A marginal positive effect was observed in the pooled analyses on opioids (n = 6, OR 1.20; 95% CI 1.08-1.32). Conclusions The evidence is unconvincing in terms of number of studies, control of major confounders, and consistency of the results. The effect seen for opioids can be attributed to the lack of adjustment of key confounders such as concomitant illness or the consumption of alcohol or other psychoactive medications. There is a need for more efficient designs like larger population-based retrospective cohorts and nested case-control or case-crossover studies based on registers of high quality allowing adjustment for these factors and for the selection of unequivocal outcomes (e.g. drivers' responsibility) to produce more persuasive empirical evidence. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Ingre M.,University of Stockholm | Van Leeuwen W.,University of Stockholm | Klemets T.,Jeppesen Systems AB | Ullvetter C.,Swedish Transport Agency | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Sleepiness and fatigue are important risk factors in the transport sector and bio-mathematical sleepiness, sleep and fatigue modeling is increasingly becoming a valuable tool for assessing safety of work schedules and rosters in Fatigue Risk Management Systems (FRMS). The present study sought to validate the inner workings of one such model, Three Process Model (TPM), on aircrews and extend the model with functions to model jetlag and to directly assess the risk of any sleepiness level in any shift schedule or roster with and without knowledge of sleep timings. We collected sleep and sleepiness data from 136 aircrews in a real life situation by means of an application running on a handheld touch screen computer device (iPhone, iPod or iPad) and used the TPM to predict sleepiness with varying level of complexity of model equations and data. The results based on multilevel linear and non-linear mixed effects models showed that the TPM predictions correlated with observed ratings of sleepiness, but explorative analyses suggest that the default model can be improved and reduced to include only two-processes (S+C), with adjusted phases of the circadian process based on a single question of circadian type. We also extended the model with a function to model jetlag acclimatization and with estimates of individual differences including reference limits accounting for 50%, 75% and 90% of the population as well as functions for predicting the probability of any level of sleepiness for ecological assessment of absolute and relative risk of sleepiness in shift systems for safety applications. © 2014 Ingre et al. Source

Larsson P.,Swedish Transport Agency | Dekker S.W.A.,Lund University | Tingvall C.,Swedish Road Administration
Safety Science | Year: 2010

In other hazardous complex socio-technical systems in society, e.g. nuclear power and aviation, systems-theoretical assumptions are considered a promising way to better understand and manage safety. In this paper, two fundamental approaches to road safety were assessed in the light of a systems theory approach. One approach, is based on a premise where individual road-users are solely responsible when crashes occur. In that case countermeasures are aimed at altering the behavior of the road-user in order to adapt him/her to the road transport system. The other approach, the so-called zero-tolerance position, or Vision Zero approach, to road safety is built around two axioms; the system must be adapted to the psychological and physical conditions and limitations of the human being and the responsibility for road safety must be shared between the road-users and the designers and professional operators of the system. It was found that the most important determinants of systems theory are basically not present in the road-user approach. However, even if the Vision Zero approach clearly takes step towards systems theory, it does leave room for articulating even more features of systems theory. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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