Swedish Transport Agency

Norrköping, Sweden

Swedish Transport Agency

Norrköping, Sweden
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Larsson P.,Swedish Transport Agency | Tingvall C.,Swedish Transport Administration
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2013

In most safety critical domains, safety has been improved through the application of contemporary human error models and management methods. But the common strategic approach to improve road safety has so far mainly been built on the view that individual road-users utterly are responsible when crashes occur and countermeasures have consequently been aimed at changing the behaviour of the road-user. This approach is however slowly shifting and there is a growing understanding that the strategies must be based on human factors principles. In this paper the human factors principles of the Safe System approach are outlined and important implications for the design and regulation of the road transport system will be presented. It is concluded that the Safe System approach share vital foundations with the human factors concept. But it is argued that the Safe System approach takes the human factors approach further by regarding the capability of the human body to withstand external influences with a potential to induce bodily harm. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Larsson P.,Swedish Transport Agency | Dekker S.W.A.,Lund University | Tingvall C.,Swedish Road Administration
Safety Science | Year: 2010

In other hazardous complex socio-technical systems in society, e.g. nuclear power and aviation, systems-theoretical assumptions are considered a promising way to better understand and manage safety. In this paper, two fundamental approaches to road safety were assessed in the light of a systems theory approach. One approach, is based on a premise where individual road-users are solely responsible when crashes occur. In that case countermeasures are aimed at altering the behavior of the road-user in order to adapt him/her to the road transport system. The other approach, the so-called zero-tolerance position, or Vision Zero approach, to road safety is built around two axioms; the system must be adapted to the psychological and physical conditions and limitations of the human being and the responsibility for road safety must be shared between the road-users and the designers and professional operators of the system. It was found that the most important determinants of systems theory are basically not present in the road-user approach. However, even if the Vision Zero approach clearly takes step towards systems theory, it does leave room for articulating even more features of systems theory. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | Swedish Transport Agency, University of Stockholm, Jeppesen Systems AB and Scandinavian Airline Systems AB
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2014

Sleepiness and fatigue are important risk factors in the transport sector and bio-mathematical sleepiness, sleep and fatigue modeling is increasingly becoming a valuable tool for assessing safety of work schedules and rosters in Fatigue Risk Management Systems (FRMS). The present study sought to validate the inner workings of one such model, Three Process Model (TPM), on aircrews and extend the model with functions to model jetlag and to directly assess the risk of any sleepiness level in any shift schedule or roster with and without knowledge of sleep timings. We collected sleep and sleepiness data from 136 aircrews in a real life situation by means of an application running on a handheld touch screen computer device (iPhone, iPod or iPad) and used the TPM to predict sleepiness with varying level of complexity of model equations and data. The results based on multilevel linear and non-linear mixed effects models showed that the TPM predictions correlated with observed ratings of sleepiness, but explorative analyses suggest that the default model can be improved and reduced to include only two-processes (S+C), with adjusted phases of the circadian process based on a single question of circadian type. We also extended the model with a function to model jetlag acclimatization and with estimates of individual differences including reference limits accounting for 50%, 75% and 90% of the population as well as functions for predicting the probability of any level of sleepiness for ecological assessment of absolute and relative risk of sleepiness in shift systems for safety applications.


Nagata T.,Karolinska Institutet | Nagata T.,Kyushu University | Takamori A.,Kurume University | Berg H.-Y.,Karolinska Institutet | And 2 more authors.
BMC Public Health | Year: 2012

Background: The increasing number of older road users represents a public health issue because older individuals are more susceptible to traffic injury and mortality than the general population. This study investigated the association between socio-demographic factors and traffic injury and traffic mortality for the general population and among older road users in Japan. Methods. An ecological study was conducted using national data in Japan. Multivariate regression methods were applied to investigate the association of traffic injury and traffic mortality for the general population and among older road users with significant demographic, economic, road traffic, and medical/cultural factors. Results: Income per capita, total road length, and alcohol consumption per person were significantly associated with traffic injury and traffic mortality both for the general population and among older road users in Japan. Income per capita and alcohol consumption per person were negatively associated with traffic mortality for both groups. Meanwhile, for both groups, income per capita was positively associated with traffic injury, while total road length and alcohol consumption per person were negatively associated with traffic injury. Conclusions: The effects of socio-demographic factors on traffic injury and traffic mortality in Japan were similar for both the general population and older road users. The study results suggest that injury preventive measures designed for the general population will be beneficial also for older road users in Japan. © 2012 Nagata et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


News Article | February 10, 2017
Site: globenewswire.com

»» Income increased by 6 per cent to SEK 2,876 million (2,718). »» The operating surplus increased by 7 per cent to SEK 1,891 million (1,766). »» Profit from property management increased by 13 per cent to SEK 1,180 million (1,043). »» Changes in value of properties amounted to SEK 1,709 million (1,252). »» Net profit increased by 13 per cent to SEK 2,259 million (2,008), corresponding to SEK 2.11 (1.83) per ordinary share. »» After taking possession of 32 properties for SEK 1,484 million, sale of 15 properties for SEK 630 million and investments of SEK 1,626 million, the value of the property portfolio amounted to SEK 39,234 million. »» The Board of Directors proposes a dividend of SEK 0.40 (0.35) per ordinary share to be paid in four instalments of SEK 0.10. »» The Board of Directors proposes a dividend of SEK 20.00 (20.00) per preference share to be paid in four instalments of SEK 5.00. Record profit with continued expansion in combination with further streamlining of the property portfolio Klövern reports a record result for 2016. Profit from property management showed strong development while continued positive changes in value contributed to the good result. Profit before tax increased to SEK 2,756 million, to be compared with the preceding year's record profit of SEK 2,541 million. Net moving-in, strong rental development, acquisitions and cost control contributed to the positive development. During the year we have made acquisitions in Stockholm, Malmö, Lund and Gothenburg. A number of less prioritized properties have also been divested in order to further streamline the property portfolio. Project development operations are making good progress and we see great potential in new future projects of commercial premises as well as residential. Klövern's results for 2016 beat all our previous records. A continued stable and strong development of profit from property management in combination with low interest rates and good value development of the property portfolio led to a 2016 profit before tax of SEK 2,756 million, to be compared with the previous year's record profit of SEK 2,541 million. The rental market continues to be strong which is reflected in positive net moving-in during the fourth quarter as well as during full year 2016 when we achieved a total net moving-in of SEK 20 million. During the fourth quarter we concluded transactions which reinforce Klövern's position in Malmö, Lund and Gothenburg. At the same time the portfolio was further concentrated by divestment of the property holdings in Säter and agreement to divest all of our holdings in Karlskrona. In all during 2016, Klövern acquired 32 properties, divested 15 properties and signed contracts to divest 13 additional properties. Geographic streamlining and expansion in selected growth cities will continue to be guiding stars for Klövern's transaction activities during 2017. Klövern's project development has, in line with our strategy, expanded in recent years. During 2016 we have invested SEK 1,626 million (1,386) in new and profitable projects. During the year, major projects have been successfully completed for the Swedish Transport Agency, StayAt and Tele2, among other. We experience strong demand in our ongoing projects such as the office/hotel building S7 in Västerås, the office building Skeppet in Karlstad and the Gamlestaden district in Gothenburg. We see great potential for value creation through future project development, both as regards offices and housing. In all, we make the assessment that our investments in projects will be at about the same level in 2017 as in 2016. Klövern Living is working with a large number of different residential development projects which we - in the long term - assess can lead to between 8,000 and 12,000 apartments in Stockholm, Uppsala, Västerås, Karlstad and Linköping among other places. Our assessment is that Klövern Living will start production of at least 200-300 apartments in 2017/2018 and at least 300-500 apartments in 2019/2020. Klövern's financial strength improved during 2016. The adjusted equity ratio was 36.7 per cent at the end of December, an increase during the year towards our long-term goal of 40 per cent. At the same time, the interest coverage ratio improved to 2.9, which in combination with an average period of fixed interest of 2.6 years provide good resistance against potentially higher interest rates. Due to the profit development and positive changes in value, EPRA NAV continued to develop well and amounted to SEK 11.70 at the end of the year, a rise of 23 per cent during 2016. Overall, we are very satisfied with developments during 2016 and market conditions appear good for a continued healthy development in 2017. Klövern is a real estate company committed to working closely with customers to offer them efficient premises in Swedish growth regions. Klövern is listed on Nasdaq Stockholm. For further information, see www.klovern.se. This information is information that Klövern AB is obliged to make public pursuant to the EU Market Abuse Regulation and the Securities Markets Act. The information was submitted for publication, through the agency of the contact persons set out above, at 07:30 CET on 10 February 2017.


Monarrez-Espino J.,Karolinska Institutet | Moller J.,Karolinska Institutet | Berg H.-Y.,Karolinska Institutet | Berg H.-Y.,Swedish Transport Agency | And 2 more authors.
Accident Analysis and Prevention | Year: 2013

Aim To assess the epidemiological evidence associating the use of analgesics with the occurrence of road traffic crashes in senior drivers including a meta-analysis with specific focus on opioids. Methods Systematic literature review of articles published between 1991 and 2012 retrieved from major databases using relevant key words. Eligible articles were fully reviewed and the main characteristics and results summarized. The methodological quality was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Heterogeneity tests and forest and funnel plots were used as part of the meta-analysis on opioids. Results From the potentially eligible articles, nine were selected (4 case-control, 1 case-crossover, and 4 cohort studies) of which four were of medium and five of high quality; seven investigated opioids and four non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Crash involvement (n = 7) rather than responsibility (n = 2) was investigated. Age and sex were the most common covariates adjusted for. Both opioids and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs showed mixed results including differences across estimates between and within studies. A marginal positive effect was observed in the pooled analyses on opioids (n = 6, OR 1.20; 95% CI 1.08-1.32). Conclusions The evidence is unconvincing in terms of number of studies, control of major confounders, and consistency of the results. The effect seen for opioids can be attributed to the lack of adjustment of key confounders such as concomitant illness or the consumption of alcohol or other psychoactive medications. There is a need for more efficient designs like larger population-based retrospective cohorts and nested case-control or case-crossover studies based on registers of high quality allowing adjustment for these factors and for the selection of unequivocal outcomes (e.g. drivers' responsibility) to produce more persuasive empirical evidence. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Berg H.-Y.,Karolinska Institutet | Berg H.-Y.,Swedish Transport Agency | Ifver J.,Swedish Transport Agency | Hasselberg M.,Karolinska Institutet
Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour | Year: 2016

Despite the fact, that Sweden has one of the safest traffic environments in the world, a large number of people are still injured in road traffic accidents in Sweden. The core concept of the Vision Zero that was adopted by the Swedish parliament in 1997 is to decrease the number of deaths and serious injuries caused by traffic. The vision has been followed-up in terms of decreased mortality, but there was not a consensus on how the concept "seriously injured" should be measured at that time. The aim of this paper is to describe how to develop a measure to estimate the number of seriously injured people in Sweden. The results show that it is possible to estimate the health impact of road traffic accidents based on the definition of medical impairment. According to the results, 8389 people were seriously injured (permanently medical impaired more then 1%) in the road transport area in Sweden in 2013. If the number of people who had slipped or fallen down without any vehicle being involved is excluded, the number of seriously injured was around 4700. The result of the study has been included in the road safety goal for Sweden with the aim to have 25% less seriously injured people in 2020 than the average for the years 2006-2008. The results also showed that 91% of the seriously injured were transported by car, bike or by foot. The relatively high proportion of pedestrian fall accidents happening within the transport system irrespective of whether a vehicle was moving or not raises the question whether these types of accidents should be included in the reporting of formal road traffic accidents. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Wretstrand A.,Lund University | Bylund P.-O.,Umeå University | Petzall J.,Swedish Transport Agency | Falkmer T.,Curtin University Australia
Medical Engineering and Physics | Year: 2010

Previous research has shown that wheelchair-seated passengers using special transportation services (STS) have been injured without being involved in a vehicle crash. In order to estimate incident rate and societal costs for these vehicle-related injuries, the focus needs to be adjusted towards a traveler/incident-oriented perspective. The aim of the project was to utilize such a perspective, related to travelers using STS in Sweden. In order to address the chosen perspective, a mixed method approach was used, involving quantitative as well as qualitative research techniques applied on four different sets of data: one hospital-based record, two sets of STS incident report databases, and interviews with wheelchair-seated STS passengers. The results showed that the injury incidence rate in STS is considerable, i.e. 10 per 100,000 trips. However, this high incidence rate is not due to road traffic collisions, but to non-collision injury incidents involving many elderly and frail passengers, who easily sustain traumas ranging from minor to moderate. The costs were estimated to be 23 million USD per annum or 14 USD per trip. Results suggest that future injury prevention measures should focus on safety in boarding and alighting procedures, as well as the continuing development of WTORS. © 2009 IPEM.


Wretstrand A.,Lund University | Petzall J.,Swedish Transport Agency | Bylund P.-O.,Umeå University | Falkmer T.,Curtin University Australia
Medical Engineering and Physics | Year: 2010

Previous research has pointed out that non-collision injuries occur among wheelchair users in Special Transportation Services (STS - a demand-responsive transport mode). The organization of such modes is also quite complex, involving both stakeholders and key personnel at different levels. Our objective was therefore to qualitatively explore the state of safety, as perceived and discussed within a workplace context. Focus groups were held with drivers of both taxi companies and bus companies. The results indicated that passengers run the risk of being injured without being involved in a vehicle collision. The pertinent organizational and corporate culture did not prioritize safety. The drivers identified some relatively clear-cut safety threats, primarily before and after a ride, at vehicle standstill. The driver's work place seemed to be surrounded with a reactive instead of proactive structure. We conclude that not only vehicle and wheelchair technical safety must be considered in STS, but also system safety. Instead of viewing drivers' error as a cause, it should be seen as a symptom of systems failure. Human error is connected to aspects of tools, tasks, and operating environment. Enhanced understanding and influence of these connections within STS and accessible public transport systems will promote safety for wheelchair users. © 2009 IPEM.


Almen J.,AVL MTC AB | Ohlund P.,Swedish Transport Agency
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2012

The present wording of implementing the regulation for type-approval of motor vehicles and engines with respect to emissions from heavy duty vehicles (e.g. Euro VI requirements) describes the procedure to determine gaseous emissions from on-road measurements using Portable Emissions Measurement Systems (PEMS). Emissions to be measured according to the PEMS protocol are carbon monoxide (CO), total hydrocarbons (HC) nitrogen oxides (NOx) and carbon dioxide (CO2). Measurement methods of particles will be included in the Euro VI requirements. Emission results from on-road testing can be used for In Service Conformity (ISC) pass/fail criteria but also for establishing emission factors for specific routes and verification of the fuel impact on the emissions. During on-board measurement, emission sampling, measurement of the exhaust parameters and recording of the engine parameters as well as ambient data shall continue throughout the normal in-use operation of the vehicle i.e. driving conditions that are mostly used by the operator or fleet owner of the particular vehicle type. During the past years a PEMS pilot study has been carried out in Sweden, supported by The Swedish Transport Agency, in order to verify the emissions from different types of heavy duty vehicles and fuels. This paper presents some of these results with focus on evaluating the impact on emissions measured with a PEMS instrument with regard to different alternative fuels such as Fatty-acid methyl ester (FAME), Dimethyl ether (DME), Ethanol and Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) when the vehicles are driven on the road during a normal working day. The results are compared with emissions from a diesel vehicle. Copyright © 2012 SAE International.

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