Johansson M.,Karolinska Institutet |
Gustafsson A.,Swedish Defence Research Agency |
Gustafsson A.,Swedish Toxicology science Research Center Swetox |
Johanson G.,Karolinska Institutet |
And 2 more authors.
Inhalation Toxicology | Year: 2017
Objective: It has been suggested that asthmatics are more susceptible than healthy individuals to airborne irritating chemicals in general. However, there is limited human data available to support this hypothesis due to ethical and practical difficulties. We explored a murine model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced airway inflammation to study susceptibility during acute exposure to chemicals with chlorine as a model substance. Methods: Naïve and OVA sensitized female BALB/c mice were exposed to chlorine at four different concentrations (0, 5, 30 and 80 ppm) for 15 minutes with online recording of the respiratory function by plethysmography. The specific effects on respiratory mechanics, inflammatory cells and inflammatory mediators (cytokines and chemokines) of the airways were measured 24 hours after the chlorine exposure as well as histopathological examination of the lungs. Results: Similar concentration-dependent reductions in respiratory frequency were seen in the two groups, with a 50% reduction (RD50) slightly above 5 ppm. Decreased body weight 24 hours after exposure to 80 ppm was also observed in both groups. Naïve, but not OVA-sensitized, mice showed increased bronchial reactivity and higher number of neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid at 80 ppm. Conclusions: The results do not support an increased susceptibility to chlorine among OVA-sensitized mice. This animal model, which represents a phenotype of eosinophilic airway inflammation, seems unsuitable to study susceptibility to inhalation of irritants in relation to asthma. © 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.
PubMed | University of Turku, University of California at Irvine, University of Massachusetts Amherst, University of Pretoria and 14 more.
Type: Comment | Journal: Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology : RTP | Year: 2015
We present a detailed response to the critique of State of the Science of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals 2012 (UNEP/WHO, 2013) by financial stakeholders, authored by Lamb et al. (2014). Lamb et al.s claim that UNEP/WHO (2013) does not provide a balanced perspective on endocrine disruption is based on incomplete and misleading quoting of the report through omission of qualifying statements and inaccurate description of study objectives, results and conclusions. Lamb et al. define extremely narrow standards for synthesizing evidence which are then used to dismiss the UNEP/WHO 2013 report as flawed. We show that Lamb et al. misuse conceptual frameworks for assessing causality, especially the Bradford-Hill criteria, by ignoring the fundamental problems that exist with inferring causality from empirical observations. We conclude that Lamb et al.s attempt of deconstructing the UNEP/WHO (2013) report is not particularly erudite and that their critique is not intended to be convincing to the scientific community, but to confuse the scientific data. Consequently, it promotes misinterpretation of the UNEP/WHO (2013) report by non-specialists, bureaucrats, politicians and other decision makers not intimately familiar with the topic of endocrine disruption and therefore susceptible to false generalizations of bias and subjectivity.
PubMed | Shantou University, University of Groningen, University of Queensland, National Health Research Institute and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Annals of global health | Year: 2016
Evidence has accumulated that exposure to widespread environmental toxicants, such as heavy metals, persistent organic pollutants, and tobacco smoke adversely affect fetal development and organ maturation, even after birth. The developing immune and respiratory systems are more sensitive to environmental toxicants due to their long-term physical development, starting from the early embryonic stage and persisting into early postnatal life, which requires complex signaling pathways that control proliferation and differentiation of highly heterogeneous cell types. In this review, we summarize the effect of early-life exposure to several widespread environmental toxicants on immune and lung development before and after birth, including the effects on immune cell counts, baseline characteristics of cell-mediated and humoral immunity, and alteration of lung structure and function in offspring. We also review evidence supporting the association between early-life exposure to environmental toxicants and risk for immune-related diseases and lung dysfunction in offspring in later life.
PubMed | Fudan University, University of Basel, Karolinska Institutet, Genomatix Software GmbH and Swedish Toxicology Science Research Center Swetox
Type: | Journal: Epigenetics & chromatin | Year: 2016
DNA methylation is one way to encode epigenetic information and plays a crucial role in regulating gene expression during embryonic development. DNA methylation marks are established by the DNA methyltransferases and, recently, a mechanism for active DNA demethylation has emerged involving the ten-eleven translocator proteins and thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG). However, so far it is not clear how these enzymes are recruited to, and regulate DNA methylation at, specific genomic loci. A number of studies imply that sequence-specific transcription factors are involved in targeting DNA methylation and demethylation processes. Oestrogen receptor beta (ER) is a ligand-inducible transcription factor regulating gene expression in response to the female sex hormone oestrogen. Previously, we found that ER deficiency results in changes in DNA methylation patterns at two gene promoters, implicating an involvement of ER in DNA methylation. In this study, we set out to explore this involvement on a genome-wide level, and to investigate the underlying mechanisms of this function.Using reduced representation bisulfite sequencing, we compared genome-wide DNA methylation in mouse embryonic fibroblasts derived from wildtype and ER knock-out mice, and identified around 8000 differentially methylated positions (DMPs). Validation and further characterisation of selected DMPs showed that differences in methylation correlated with changes in expression of the nearest gene. Additionally, re-introduction of ER into the knock-out cells could reverse hypermethylation and reactivate expression of some of the genes. We also show that ER is recruited to regions around hypermethylated DMPs. Finally, we demonstrate here that ER interacts with TDG and that TDG binds ER-dependently to hypermethylated DMPs.We provide evidence that ER plays a role in regulating DNA methylation at specific genomic loci, likely as the result of its interaction with TDG at these regions. Our findings imply a novel function of ER, beyond direct transcriptional control, in regulating DNA methylation at target genes. Further, they shed light on the question how DNA methylation is regulated at specific genomic loci by supporting a concept in which sequence-specific transcription factors can target factors that regulate DNA methylation patterns.
PubMed | Chalmers University of Technology, Masaryk University, University of Bayreuth, University of Stockholm and 9 more.
Type: | Journal: Environment international | Year: 2015
Rockstrm et al. (2009a, 2009b) have warned that humanity must reduce anthropogenic impacts defined by nine planetary boundaries if unacceptable global change is to be avoided. Chemical pollution was identified as one of those boundaries for which continued impacts could erode the resilience of ecosystems and humanity. The central concept of the planetary boundary (or boundaries) for chemical pollution (PBCP or PBCPs) is that the Earth has a finite assimilative capacity for chemical pollution, which includes persistent, as well as readily degradable chemicals released at local to regional scales, which in aggregate threaten ecosystem and human viability. The PBCP allows humanity to explicitly address the increasingly global aspects of chemical pollution throughout a chemicals life cycle and the need for a global response of internationally coordinated control measures. We submit that sufficient evidence shows stresses on ecosystem and human health at local to global scales, suggesting that conditions are transgressing the safe operating space delimited by a PBCP. As such, current local to global pollution control measures are insufficient. However, while the PBCP is an important conceptual step forward, at this point single or multiple PBCPs are challenging to operationalize due to the extremely large number of commercial chemicals or mixtures of chemicals that cause myriad adverse effects to innumerable species and ecosystems, and the complex linkages between emissions, environmental concentrations, exposures and adverse effects. As well, the normative nature of a PBCP presents challenges of negotiating pollution limits amongst societal groups with differing viewpoints. Thus, a combination of approaches is recommended as follows: develop indicators of chemical pollution, for both control and response variables, that will aid in quantifying a PBCP(s) and gauging progress towards reducing chemical pollution; develop new technologies and technical and social approaches to mitigate global chemical pollution that emphasize a preventative approach; coordinate pollution control and sustainability efforts; and facilitate implementation of multiple (and potentially decentralized) control efforts involving scientists, civil society, government, non-governmental organizations and international bodies.
Lindsjo J.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences |
Fahlman A.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences |
Tornqvist E.,Swedish Toxicology science Research Center Swetox |
Tornqvist E.,Karolinska Institutet
Journal of Wildlife Diseases | Year: 2016
The concept of the 3Rs (replacement, reduction, and refinement) was originally developed for improving laboratory animal welfare and is well known in biomedical and toxicologic research. The 3Rs have so far gained little attention in wildlife research, and there could be several reasons for this. First, researchers may prioritize the welfare of populations and ecosystems over the welfare of individual animals. The effects of research on individual animals can, however, impact welfare and research quality at group and population levels. Second, researchers may find it difficult to apply the 3Rs to studies of free-living wildlife because of the differences between laboratory and wild animals, species, research environment, and purpose and design of the studies. There are, however, several areas where it is possible to transfer the 3R principles to wildlife research, including replacement with noninvasive research techniques, reduction with optimized experimental design, and refinement with better methods of capture, anesthesia, and handling. Third, researchers may not have been trained in applying the 3Rs in wildlife research. This training is needed since ethics committees, employers, journal publishers, and funding agencies increasingly require researchers to consider the welfare implications of their research. In this paper, we compare the principles of the 3Rs in various research areas to better understand the possibilities and challenges of the 3Rs in wildlife research. We emphasize the importance of applying the 3Rs systematically throughout the research process. Based on experiences from laboratory research, we suggest three key factors to enhance implementation of the 3Rs in wildlife research: 1) organizational structure and management, 2) 3R awareness, and 3) research innovation, validation, and implementation. Finally, we encourage an interdisciplinary approach to incorporate the 3R principles in wildlife research. For improved animal welfare and increased research quality, researchers have moral obligations to include the 3Rs into all research areas, including wildlife research. © Wildlife Disease Association 2016.
Ali I.,Karolinska Institutet |
Damdimopoulou P.,Swedish Toxicology science Research Center Swetox |
Damdimopoulou P.,Karolinska Institutet |
Stenius U.,Karolinska Institutet |
Halldin K.,Karolinska Institutet
Chemico-Biological Interactions | Year: 2015
Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental contaminant classified as carcinogenic to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, supported by data from occupational exposure. Environmentally relevant dietary exposure to Cd has recently been associated with osteoporosis and cancers of the prostate, endometrium, and breast in the general population. The low exposure effects have been proposed to result from endocrine modulative properties of Cd, which mimic the physiological actions of estrogen and androgen. However, the mechanism of action of Cd is an unanswered question. We have shown previously, using mouse models, that canonical estrogen receptor signaling is not involved in estrogen mimicry effects of Cd. Instead, low-level Cd exposure stimulated the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) ERK1/2 in these mice. Here we investigate further the ERK1/2 MAPK signaling activation by Cd in vitro by using nanomolar concentrations of cadmium chloride (CdCl2) in three different human carcinoma cell lines: HepG2, MCF-7, and ECC-1. The findings also were confirmed in previously collected mouse tissue samples. We show that 10-8 M levels of CdCl2 activate ERK1/2 (Tyr 204) and the p53 specific ubiquitin ligase Mdm2 (Ser 166) via Raf and MEK by acting through the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Furthermore, our results suggest that the CdCl2-induced activation of ERK1/2 and Mdm2 may interfere with the p53 response to genotoxic compounds in cancer cell lines. Our data collectively suggest that nanomolar levels of CdCl2 activate Raf-MEK-ERK1/2 via EGFR. We hypothesize that this signaling cascade may be involved in observed low exposure effects of Cd in certain human populations. © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wincent E.,Karolinska Institutet |
Wincent E.,Swedish Toxicology science Research Center Swetox |
Le Bihanic F.,Karolinska Institutet |
Dreij K.,Karolinska Institutet
Toxicology Research | Year: 2016
Oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (oxy-PAHs) are found in the environment together with PAHs. However, less is known concerning their biological activity including their impact on aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) signalling and the subsequent modulation of the cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYP). In this study, the effects of 15 environmentally relevant oxy-PAHs on the induction and activity of the CYP1 enzymes were determined in vitro by measuring gene expression levels and enzyme activity. We found that nine of the tested oxy-PAHs significantly induced CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 gene expression in human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) while only five of these also were potent inducers of CYP1-dependent ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity suggesting that some of the oxy-PAHs are both activators of AHR signalling and inhibitors of CYP1 function. Using a recombinant human CYP1A1 enzyme we showed that eleven of the oxy-PAHs potently inhibited enzyme activity with benz[a]anthracene-7,12-quinone (7,12-BAQ) and benzo[a]fluorenone (BFLO) being the most potent inhibitors (IC50 = 0.037 and 0.061 μM, respectively). We further exposed HaCaT cells to binary mixtures of oxy-PAHs and the model AHR agonist 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) to investigate potential interaction effects. The results showed that oxy-PAHs can interfere with the TCDD-mediated effects leading to reduced CYP1A1 and 1B1 expression and EROD activity. These data represent the first demonstration that oxy-PAHs can be potent inhibitors of CYP1 expression and function and make important contributions towards understanding the mechanisms through which oxy-PAHs can contribute to the overall risk of polycyclic aromatic compounds. © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry.
PubMed | Tongji University, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Arizona State University and Swedish Toxicology science Research Center Swetox
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Environmental science & technology | Year: 2016
The production of sewage sludge is increasing in China but with unsafe disposal practices, causing potential risk to human health and the environment. Using literature from the past 30 years (N = 159), we conducted a meta-analysis of organic contaminants (OCs) in Chinese sludge. Most data were available from developed and populated regions, and no data were found for Tibet. Since 1987, 35 classes of chemicals consisting of 749 individual compounds and 1 mixture have been analyzed, in which antibiotics and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were the most targeted analytes. For 13 classes of principal OCs (defined as chemicals detected in over five studies) in sludge, the median (expressed in nanograms per gram dry weight) was the highest for phthalate esters (27900), followed by alkylphenol polyethoxylates (12000), synthetic musks (5800), antibiotics (4240), PAHs (3490), ultraviolet stabilizers (670), bisphenol analogs (160), organochlorine pesticides (110), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (100), pharmaceuticals (84), hormones (69), perfluorinated compounds (21), and polychlorinated biphenyls (15). Concentrations of PAHs in sludges collected between 1998 and 2012 showed a decreasing trend. Study findings suggest the need for a Chinese national sewage sludge survey to identify and regulate toxic OCs, ideally employing both targeted as well as nontargeted screening approaches.
PubMed | Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences and Swedish Toxicology science Research Center Swetox
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of wildlife diseases | Year: 2016
The concept of the 3Rs (replacement, reduction, and refinement) was originally developed for improving laboratory animal welfare and is well known in biomedical and toxicologic research. The 3Rs have so far gained little attention in wildlife research, and there could be several reasons for this. First, researchers may prioritize the welfare of populations and ecosystems over the welfare of individual animals. The effects of research on individual animals can, however, impact welfare and research quality at group and population levels. Second, researchers may find it difficult to apply the 3Rs to studies of free-living wildlife because of the differences between laboratory and wild animals, species, research environment, and purpose and design of the studies. There are, however, several areas where it is possible to transfer the 3R principles to wildlife research, including replacement with noninvasive research techniques, reduction with optimized experimental design, and refinement with better methods of capture, anesthesia, and handling. Third, researchers may not have been trained in applying the 3Rs in wildlife research. This training is needed since ethics committees, employers, journal publishers, and funding agencies increasingly require researchers to consider the welfare implications of their research. In this paper, we compare the principles of the 3Rs in various research areas to better understand the possibilities and challenges of the 3Rs in wildlife research. We emphasize the importance of applying the 3Rs systematically throughout the research process. Based on experiences from laboratory research, we suggest three key factors to enhance implementation of the 3Rs in wildlife research: 1) organizational structure and management, 2) 3R awareness, and 3) research innovation, validation, and implementation. Finally, we encourage an interdisciplinary approach to incorporate the 3R principles in wildlife research. For improved animal welfare and increased research quality, researchers have moral obligations to include the 3Rs into all research areas, including wildlife research.