Torudd J.,Facilia AB |
Saetre P.,Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company
Ambio | Year: 2013
This study investigates whether non-human biota are protected against harmful effects of ionizing radiation after a possible future release of radioactive matter from a planned repository for spent nuclear fuel. Radiation dose rates to a broad spectrum of organisms were calculated based on data from sampled organisms and modeled activity concentrations. Calculations were performed with the ERICA Tool, a software program which applies a screening dose-rate value of 10 microgray per hour (μGy h-1) for all types of organisms. Dose rates below this value are thought to result in minimal risk to the individual or population. All calculated dose rates were below the screening value and below the lowest relevant band of "derived consideration levels" proposed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. This provides a sound basis for arguing that no individuals or populations of examined species would be harmfully affected by a possible radioactive release from the repository. © 2013 The Author(s).
A transmissivity model for deformation zones in fractured crystalline rock and its possible correlation to in situ stress at the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository site at Forsmark, Sweden [Un modèle de transmissivité pour des zones de déformation dans des roches cristallines fracturées et sa corrélation possible avec une contrainte in situ sur le site de stockage de déchets nucléaires haute activité projeté à Forsmark, Suède]
Follin S.,SF GeoLogic AB |
Stigsson M.,Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company |
Stigsson M.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology
Hydrogeology Journal | Year: 2014
The Forsmark site was recently proposed by the Svensk Kärnbränslehantering AB (SKB) to serve as the potential site for construction of a future geological repository for spent high-level nuclear fuel at about 470 m depth in fractured crystalline rock. The considerations included, among other things, distance from regionally significant deformation zones with highly strained rock, lithological homogeneity, low hydraulic conductivity, groundwater salinity with an acceptable range, and lack of potential mineral resources. This report describes the calculation of transmissivity of deduced deformation zones at Forsmark and the transmissivity model used in the regional groundwater flow modeling carried out in support of the integrated site description. Besides significant decrease with increasing depth (more than four orders of magnitude over a depth of about 1 km), the calculated transmissivity values also reveal considerable spatial variability along the strikes of the zones, i.e. lateral heterogeneity (more than two orders of magnitude). A hydro-mechanical coupling is discussed, based on presented models for the tectonic evolution and the principal stress tensor. Tentatively, laboratory-scale relationships developed from normal stress experiments on a single fracture in crystalline rock can be used to estimate the maximum values of transmissivity of deduced deformation zones at Forsmark. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Cvetkovic V.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology |
Carstens C.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology |
Selroos J.-O.,Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company |
Destouni G.,University of Stockholm
Water Resources Research | Year: 2012
A Lagrangian framework for material transport along hydrological pathways is presented and consequences of statistically stationary space-time flow velocity variations on advective transport are investigated. The two specific questions addressed in this work are: How do temporal fluctuations affect forward and backward water travel time distributions when combined with spatial variability? and Can mass transfer processes be quantified using conditional probabilities in spatially and temporally variable flow? Space-time trajectories are studied for generic conditions of flow, with fully ergodic or only spatially ergodic velocity. It is shown that forward and backward distributions of advective water travel time coincide for statistically stationary space-time variations. Temporal variability alters the statistical structure of the Lagrangian velocity fluctuations. Once this is accounted for, integration of the memory function with the travel time distribution is applicable for quantifying retention. Further work is needed to better understand the statistical structure of space-time velocity variability in hydrological transport, as well as its impact on tracer retention and attenuation. © 2012. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.
Berglund S.,HydroResearch AB Stora Marknadsvagen |
Bosson E.,Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company |
Sassner M.,DHI Water - Environment - Health
Ambio | Year: 2013
This paper presents an analysis of present and future hydrological conditions at the Forsmark site in Sweden, which has been proposed as the site for a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel. Forsmark is a coastal site that changes in response to shoreline displacement. In the considered time frame (until year 10 000 ad), the hydrological system will be affected by landscape succession associated with shoreline displacement and changes in vegetation, regolith stratigraphy, and climate. Based on extensive site investigations and modeling of present hydrological conditions, the effects of different processes on future site hydrology are quantified. As expected, shoreline displacement has a strong effect on local hydrology (e.g., groundwater flow) in areas that change from sea to land. The comparison between present and future land areas emphasizes the importance of climate variables relative to other factors for main hydrological features such as water balances. © 2013 The Author(s).
Kautsky U.,Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company |
Lindborg T.,Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company |
Valentin J.,Oregrundsgatan 15
Ambio | Year: 2013
This is an overview of the strategy used to describe the effects of a potential release from a radioactive waste repository on human exposure and future environments. It introduces a special issue of AMBIO, in which 13 articles show ways of understanding and characterizing the future. The study relies mainly on research performed in the context of a recent safety report concerning a repository for spent nuclear fuel in Sweden (the so-called SR-Site project). The development of a good understanding of on-site processes and acquisition of site-specific data facilitated the development of new approaches for assessment of surface ecosystems. A systematic and scientifically coherent methodology utilizes the understanding of the current spatial and temporal dynamics as an analog for future conditions. We conclude that future ecosystem can be inferred from a few variables and that this multidisciplinary approach is relevant in a much wider context than radioactive waste. © 2013 The Author(s).
Munier R.,Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company
Environmental Earth Sciences | Year: 2013
Safe, long-term disposal of nuclear wastes requires a thorough analysis of the interactions between all components in the proposed repository system. In their article entitled "Superior techniques for disposal of highly radioactive waste (HLW)", published online in this journal January 26, 2012, the authors Pusch and Weston bring forward severe criticism on the methods our company, SKB, have chosen for disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SKB in Design premises for a KBS-3V repository based on results from the safety assessment SR-Can and some subsequent analyses. SKB TR-09-22, Svensk Kärnbränslehantering AB, Stockholm, Sweden, 2009; SKB in Design and production of the KBS-3 repository. SKB TR-10-12, Svensk Kärnbränslehantering AB, Stockholm, Sweden, 2010a; Thegerström and Olsson in 13th International High-Level Radioactive Waste Management Conference 2011 (IHLRWMC 2011), April 10-14, 2011. Albuquerque, NM Curran Associates, Inc. ISBN: 9781617828508, 2011) and therefore propose an alternative called KBS-3i, claimed to outperform the method favored by SKB, KBS-3V. We here argue that the authors overlook several effects of their proposed modifications of the disposal concept. The purpose of this reply is to clarify some misconceptions, correct factual errors and provide the interested reader a more nuanced description of the complexities involved in nuclear waste disposal. Here, we focus our reply on a few key topics. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Bradshaw C.,University of Stockholm |
Kautsky U.,Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company |
Kumblad L.,University of Stockholm
Ecosystems | Year: 2012
Energy (carbon) flows and element cycling are fundamental, interlinked principles explaining ecosystem processes. The element balance in components, interactions and processes in ecosystems (ecological stoichiometry; ES) has been used to study trophic dynamics and element cycling. This study extends ES beyond its usual limits of C, N, and P and examines the distribution and transfer of 48 elements in 16 components of a coastal ecosystem, using empirical and modeling approaches. Major differences in elemental composition were demonstrated between abiotic and biotic compartments and trophic levels due to differences in taxonomy and ecological function. Mass balance modeling for each element, based on carbon fluxes and element:C ratios, was satisfactory for 92. 5% of all element-compartment combinations despite the complexity of the ecosystem model. Model imbalances could mostly be explained by ecological processes, such as increased element uptake during the spring algal bloom. Energy flows in ecosystems can thus realistically estimate element transfer in the environment, as modeled uptake is constrained by metabolic rates and elements available. The dataset also allowed us to examine one of the key concepts of ES, homeostasis, for more elements than is normally possible. The relative concentrations of elements in organisms compared to their resources did not provide support for the theory that autotrophs show weak homeostasis and showed that the strength of homeostasis by consumers depends on the type of element (for example, macroelement, trace element). Large-scale, multi-element ecosystem studies are essential to evaluate and advance the framework of ES and the importance of ecological processes. © 2012 The Author(s).
Hedin A.,Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company |
Olsson O.,Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company
Elements | Year: 2016
The granitic bedrock at Forsmark (Sweden) provides a well suited host rock for a geological repository in which to safely dispose of spent nuclear fuel. The properties of the host rock have been thoroughly investigated through boreholes from the surface. This repository will be at a depth of approximately 500 m where the spent nuclear fuel will be contained in 6,000 copper canisters able to withstand potential earthquakes and glaciation events. The canisters will be surrounded by a bentonite clay buffer to prevent canister corrosion by groundwater. The safety assessment in support of the site's license application suggests that almost all of the canisters will remain tight even one million years into the future. © 2016 by the Mineralogical Society of America.
Wikberg P.,Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company
ATW - Internationale Zeitschrift fur Kernenergie | Year: 2012
In 1976 the Swedish parliament stipulated a law which required the nuclear power companies to prove safe handling of nuclear waste in order to continue the construction of nuclear power plants. This requirement was to be fulfilled in steps until the report KBS-3 in 1984 was accepted by the Swedish government as evidence for safe disposal of spent nuclear fuel. KBS-3 was the first comprehensive long-term safety assessment of a deep geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel which combined the conditions of the natural safety barrier, the bedrock, with man-made barriers, the copper canister and the clay barrier. The acceptance of the KBS-3 report allowed the last 2 reactors in the Sweden to get permission to start operation. The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (Svensk Kärn-bränslehantering AB - SKB) owned by the nuclear power companies was given the mission to handle all nuclear waste. According to the Nuclear Act from 1984 the economical resources needed for this work must be allocated into a fund which is managed by the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM). The central conclusion of the safety assessment SR-Site is that a KBS-3 repository that fulfills long-term safety requirements can be built at the Forsmark site. The license application was turned in on the 16th of March 2011, one application according to the Nuclear Act and one according to the Environmental Act. The review of all documentation will probably last for a couple of years. SKB hope to get a license to start construction in 2015 and operation in 2025. Since 1988 SKB is running a final repository, SFR, for operational waste from the nuclear power plants. This facility is also located in Forsmark with a one kilometre long tunnel into the rock under the Baltic Sea.
News Article | November 1, 2016
Toyota has unveiled a new device aimed at allowing anyone to share their car. The Smart Key Box (SKB) can be installed in a vehicle so as to provide access to people via their smartphones. The SKB replaces the need to exchange vehicle smart keys, therefore eliminating the chance of them being lost or stolen. It is designed to provide a more secure way of lending or renting out a vehicle and can be used to lock and unlock the doors of a vehicle, as well as to start its engine. Toyota says vehicles need not be modified for the SKB to be installed, though details on installation, setup and operation are somewhat lacking at the moment. The company does reveal that once the device is set up, a digital key can be sent to an app on an authorized user's smartphone. When the user approaches the vehicle, the SKB will connect to their device via Bluetooth Low Energy and will recognize the digital key, subsequently providing access. The dates and times at which a digital key can be used can be restricted to booking arrangements managed by the Toyota Smart Center (TSC), the carmaker's cloud-based computing system that was conceived to connect people, vehicles and communities, such as, in this case, car-sharing services. The SKB is the first offering of Toyota's new "Mobility Services Platform" (MSPF), which it intends to use for collaborations with mobility service providers and telematics insurance. The MSPF pulls together a number of Toyota's recently developed business functions, like vehicle management systems and leasing programs, which can subsequently be used by partners to support their own service offerings. Toyota plans to explore the benefits and convenience of its SKB in a pilot with US car-sharing company Getaround. The pilot is scheduled to begin in January next year. Update Nov 1: Toyota has sent us a little more information on the SKB. The SKB currently works with all Lexus vehicles and the Toyota Prius. Toyota tells New Atlas that the Prius was prioritized because of its popularity with car sharing programs and that other Toyota vehicles may be added in future. In order for a vehicle to work with the SKB, it must have an electronic key. The SKB replaces the key and communicates wirelessly, so does not need to be hardwired to the ignition. Update Nov 3: A little more information has filtered through from Toyota. The SKB's battery can be charged via USB in the user's car or elsewhere and, once charged, the device can run wirelessly. There's no word yet on pricing or when the first MSPF provider integrations will be rolled out publicly.