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Backous D.D.,Swedish Neuroscience Institute
Neurosurgical focus | Year: 2014

The indications for cochlear implantation continue to extend to patients with increased levels of residual hearing. Single-sided deafness and tinnitus are currently under various clinical trials as even further expansion of the application of cochlear implant device and programming technology is underway. This video details a round window and hearing preservation approach for cochlear implant placement, and incorporates the most recent advances in surgical technique. The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/bDqkbboXrU4 .

Cobbs C.S.,Swedish Neuroscience Institute
Current Opinion in Oncology | Year: 2013

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: First described in 2002, the presence and role of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection in glioblastoma (GBM) has remained a controversial topic. New research indicates HCMV gene products likely promote GBM pathogenesis and that therapies aimed at HCMV might influence disease progression. RECENT FINDINGS: Recently, investigators have begun to analyze HCMV genome and proteins present in GBM cells in vivo. Furthermore, the research has demonstrated that several HCMV gene products that have oncomodulatory properties are expressed in GBM and may be impacting tumor pathogenesis in vivo. These HCMV gene products modulate GBM proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, invasion and immune evasion. A recent mouse model provides mechanistic information as to how CMV may promote gliomagenesis in the setting of tumor suppressor dysfunction and STAT3 signaling. In addition, clinical outcomes of GBM patients are associated with the degree of HCMV infection. Novel therapies aimed at direct antiviral and immunotherapy approaches to HCMV suggest that these modalities may impact the future treatment of this disease. SUMMARY: A more precise understanding of the role of HCMV infection in gliomagenesis and GBM pathogenesis could reveal novel therapeutic and preventive strategies. © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Aurora S.K.,Swedish Neuroscience Institute
Cephalalgia : an international journal of headache | Year: 2013

Migraine is a disabling neurological disorder often complicated by gastrointestinal conditions such as gastric stasis. The association between migraine and gastric stasis has received very little attention in the literature, but the existing evidence suggests that they may share a common etiology. Patients with migraine and those with gastric stasis exhibit abnormal autonomic nervous system function. Furthermore, empirical studies demonstrate that migraineurs experience significant delays in gastric emptying, both during and outside of attacks, when compared to non-migrainous controls. More research is needed to establish the relationship between gastric stasis and migraine burden and to determine the impact of gastric stasis on migraine treatment.

Maizels M.,Blue Ridge | Aurora S.,Swedish Neuroscience Institute | Heinricher M.,Oregon Health And Science University
Headache | Year: 2012

No single model of migraine explains all of the known features of the disorder. Migraine has recently been characterized as an abnormality in pain-modulating circuits in the brainstem. The periaqueductal gray appears to have a critical role in migraine genesis and has been labeled the "migraine generator." The concept of a "pain matrix," rather than a specific locus of pain, is widely accepted in the pain literature and offers a new dimension to understanding migraine. Recent neuroimaging studies of migraineurs suggest altered functional connectivity between brainstem pain-modulating circuits and cortical (limbic) centers. Numerous clinical observations suggest that limbic influences play an important role in migraine expression. We propose a model of migraine as a dysfunction of a "neurolimbic" pain network. The influence between brainstem and cortical centers is bidirectional, reflecting the bidirectional interaction of pain and mood. Neurolimbic dysfunction may increase as migraine becomes more chronic or refractory. The neurolimbic model expands the model of migraine as a dysfunction of brainstem nuclei. A neurolimbic model may help bridge a gap in understanding the migraine attack, the interictal dysfunctions of episodic migraine, the progression to chronic migraine, and the common comorbidities with other disorders (such as fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome, and mood and anxiety disorders), which may also be considered neurolimbic. A neurolimbic model of migraine may be a useful heuristic that would impact both clinical treatment and research agendas, as well as education of physicians and patients. © 2012 American Headache Society.

Ludlam W.H.,Swedish Neuroscience Institute | Anthony L.,University of Kentucky
Advances in Therapy | Year: 2011

Introduction: Patients with either acromegaly or neuroendocrine tumors (NET) can be treated with somatostatin analogs to relieve symptoms and improve disease control. However, there is an absence of large clinical trials specifically designed to document the safety when increases in somatostatin analog dosing are needed in patients who do not achieve their treatment goals. To fully explore and communicate any potential risks, we conducted a literature review and present a summary of the studies documenting the safety and tolerability of dose optimization with somatostatin analogs in patients with acromegaly and NET. Methods: A literature search was undertaken to find clinical studies specifically reporting the effects of dose titration using the depot formulations of the somatostatin analogs, octreotide long-acting repeatable (LAR) or lanreotide, in patients with acromegaly and NET. Results: Publications that described the treatment and management of patients with acromegaly and NET were reviewed. The rationale for dose optimization, including high-dose treatment in patients who are inadequately controlled on conventional doses and the safety and tolerability of somatostatin analogs, is discussed. Conclusion: A review of published clinical studies demonstrates that dose optimization provides additional biochemical control in patients with acromegaly and NET who are inadequately controlled with conventional starting doses of octreotide LAR and lanreotide ATG. The benefits of dose optimization include improved efficacy without a significant change in the recorded adverse events and the tolerability of the treatment. Therefore, patient response to treatment should be routinely monitored and their somatostatin analog dose increased or decreased thereafter according to their individual response. © 2011 Springer Healthcare.

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