Swedish National Testing And Research Institute

Boras, Sweden

Swedish National Testing And Research Institute

Boras, Sweden

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Bystrom A.,Lulea University of Technology | Cheng X.,Lulea University of Technology | Cheng X.,Hefei University of Technology | Wickstrom U.,Lulea University of Technology | And 2 more authors.
Building and Environment | Year: 2012

A fire experiment with wood crib was conducted in a concrete building under low ambient temperature of-10°C to explore fire development and temperature distribution. The concrete building consists of a two-storey compartment with the size of 9.0m by 5.0m by 4.8m high and a four-storey stairwell with the size of 5.0m by 2.4m by 10.0m high. The fuel mass loss rate and temperatures at different positions were measured. Two fire cases, with different assumed ambient temperatures of-10°C and 20°C respectively, were then simulated by using FDS software to investigate the effect of ambient temperature and compare with the experimental results. The numerical results show that the calculated heat release rate is in reasonably good agreement with the measured full-scale result before water suppression. The calculated temperatures in the hot combustion gas layer at different positions agree also very well with the measured values. However, the measured fresh air temperature at the floor level near the fire source is higher than the calculated value. This discrepancy may partly depend on measuring errors as analyzed in the paper. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Tarasso V.,Swedish National Testing And Research Institute | Zachovalova V.N.,Czech Metrology Institute | Mansten T.,Mittatekniikan Keskus Center for Metrology and Accreditation | Pogliano U.,INRIM - Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica | And 2 more authors.
CPEM Digest (Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements) | Year: 2010

This paper gives a survey of the performance of existing current shunts designed by National Metrology Institutes (NMI's) around Europe. Key characteristics for power measurement; phase displacement, ac-dc transfer difference and power coefficient of the shunt resistance is reported for 5A, 50 A and 100 A shunts. © 2010 IEEE.


Bosco G.C.,INRIM - Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica | Garcocz M.,Bundesamt fur Eich und Vermessungswesen BEV | Lind K.,Justervesenet Norwegian Metrology Service JV | Pogliano U.,INRIM - Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica | And 4 more authors.
CPEM Digest (Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements) | Year: 2010

A comparison of the phase of existing shunts for currents between 10 A and 100 A and frequencies from 500 Hz to 100 kHz has been organized. The measurements were performed at INRIM using a first prototype of a new type of phase comparator and a step-up method for the data processing. The results of the relative measurements have shown a good repeatability, but the method for the evaluation of the reference value still needs some improvement. © 2010 IEEE.


Bergman A.,Swedish National Testing And Research Institute
IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement | Year: 2012

Losses of HVDC converter stations need to be accurately measured and/or estimated in order to support the evaluation of bids for such systems and to underpin efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The challenge of measurement has risen with modern converters where insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBT) are used at high switching frequency. The theoretical bases for measurement errors are studied, both for measurement on the IGBT as a component and on complete converter stations. The study shows that electrical measurements are difficult to augment to an accuracy level sufficient for the needs and that a supplemental method such as calorimetric measurement may be needed. In certain cases, there will be a possibility to make temporary connections to permit two converters to operate in back-to-back mode, permitting a direct measurement of losses. The achievable accuracy is studied and estimated. © 1963-2012 IEEE.


Wu Y.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | Cox S.S.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | Xu Y.,University of Texas at Austin | Liang Y.,University of Texas at Austin | And 7 more authors.
Building and Environment | Year: 2016

Semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) are indoor air pollutants that may have significant adverse effects on human health. Although emissions of volatile chemicals from building materials and consumer products are usually characterized in small chambers, few chamber studies have been conducted for SVOCs due to the challenges associated with analysis and the lack of validation procedures. There is an urgent need for a reliable and accurate chamber test method to verify these measurements. A reference method employing a specially-designed chamber has been developed and is undergoing extensive evaluation. A pilot inter-laboratory study (ILS) has been conducted with six laboratories performing chamber tests under identical conditions for di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP). Results from this study showed inter-laboratory variations of 24% for DEHP emission rates, with closer agreement observed among intra-laboratory measurements for most of the participating laboratories. A mechanistic emission model fits well to the measured concentration profiles, demonstrating the feasibility of the proposed reference method to independently assess laboratory performance and validate SVOC emission tests. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Juvik J.I.,Swedish National Testing And Research Institute
CPEM Digest (Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements) | Year: 2010

Phase displacements in the reference channel of a digital bridge used for calibrating instrument transformers with digital output have been investigated. Since the sampling in this set-up is controlled from the unit under test the largest correction stems from the virtual time shift caused by the aperture time integration when measuring a sinusoidal voltage with the sampling multimeter in DCV mode. This time shift is found to be equal to half the aperture time. In addition is the correction for the reaction time of the multimeter in this mode found to be 140 ns. © 2010 IEEE.


Manner J.,Skogforsk | Lindroos O.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Arvidsson H.,Swedish National Testing And Research Institute | Nordfjell T.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
Croatian Journal of Forest Engineering | Year: 2016

In mechanized forestry, much of the work is conducted by use of cranes, and recovering potential energy is a possible method to reduce energy consumption when using cranes for lift work. The objective of this study was to evaluate the capacity of a new »Energy-efficient hydraulic lift cylinder« (EHLC), which has a secondary cylinder built into its piston rod, to store potential energy from lowering the boom in the form of pressurized hydraulic oil in an accumulator and using the stored energy in the next boom lift. The EHLC was mounted on a forwarder, and manipulated to enable its use also as a standard cylinder. We then compared the EHLC and a standard cylinder in terms of function and energy consumption during repetitive boom lifts and lowerings. With the tested settings the EHLC saved up to approximately 9.4% of the energy consumed during the first part of boom lifts and up to 3.2% of the total lift energy. With possible further adjustments, such as optimization of the accumulator size, enlargement of the assisting cylinder diameter, and enhancement of the accumulator pressurization, but most importantly reduction in internal leakage, the current EHLC could have commercial potential. © 2016, University of Zagreb. All rights reserved.


Chai G.,Sandvik AB | Lillbacka R.,Swedish National Testing And Research Institute | Lin Peng R.,Linköping University
18th European Conference on Fracture: Fracture of Materials and Structures from Micro to Macro Scale | Year: 2010

Two phase metals can suffer from non-uniform load sharing between the phases or stress heterogeneity on the micro-scale, elastic/plastic anisotropy and other mechanical interactions on the scale of grain size during cyclic loading. These effects strongly influence the fatigue damage and crack initiation behaviour of the two phase metals. In this paper, the fatigue damage and crack initiation behaviours of two austenitic-ferritic duplex stainless steels, UNS S32750 and UNS S32906, have been studied by both experimental investigations such as low cycle fatigue tests, SEM and TEM study, and X-ray and neutron diffraction and simulation using multi-scale material modelling. It has been found that the material damage and crack initiation in these two duplex stainless steels during cyclic loading occur mainly in the ferritic phase that is the weakest phase if the deformation hardening is considered.


Lindgren M.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Arrhenius K.,SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden | Larsson G.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Bafver L.,SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden | And 4 more authors.
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2011

Emissions from vehicle diesel engines constitute a considerable share of anthropogenic emissions of pollutants, including many non-regulated compounds such as aromatic hydrocarbons and alkenes. One way to reduce these emissions might be to use fuels with low concentrations of aromatic hydrocarbons, such as Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) diesels. Therefore this study compared Swedish Environmental Class 1 diesel (EC1) with the F-T diesel fuel Ecopar™ in terms of emissions under varied conditions (steady state, controlled transients and realistic work operations) in order to identify factors influencing emissions in actual operation. Using F-T diesel reduced emissions of aromatic hydrocarbons, but not alkenes. Emissions were equally dependent on work operation character (load, engine speed, occurrence of transients) for both fuels. There were indications that the emissions originated from unburnt fuel, rather than from combustion products. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology, Aerospace Technology Inc. and Swedish National Testing And Research Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of research of the National Institute of Standards and Technology | Year: 2016

An ellipsoidal radiometer has been characterized using a 25 mm variable-temperature blackbody as a radiant source. This radiometer is intended for separating radiation from convection effects in fire test methods. The characterization included angular response, responsivity, and purge-gas flow effect studies. The angular response measurements showed that the reflection from the radiometer cavity was higher on one of the cavity halves relative to the other half. Further development work may be necessary to improve the angular response. The responsivity measured with reference to a transfer-standard electrical-substitution radiometer showed dependence on the distance of the radiometer from the blackbody cavity. The purge-gas had the effect of reducing the signal output nearly linearly with flow rate.

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