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Verner M.-A.,Harvard University | Verner M.-A.,Karolinska Institutet | McDougall R.,University of Ontario Institute of Technology | Glynn A.,Swedish National Food Agency | And 4 more authors.
Environmental Health Perspectives | Year: 2013

Background: A recent meta-analysis based on data from > 7,000 pregnancies reported an association between prenatal polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-153 exposure and reduced birth weight. Gestational weight gain, which is associated negatively with PCB levels in maternal and cord blood, and positively with birth weight, could substantially confound this association. Objective: We sought to estimate the influence of gestational weight gain on the association between PCB-153 exposure and birth weight using a pharmacokinetic model. Methods: We modified a recently published pharmacokinetic model and ran Monte Carlo simulations accounting for variability in physiologic parameters and their correlations. We evaluated the pharmacokinetic model by comparing simulated plasma PCB-153 levels during pregnancy to serial measurements in 10 pregnant women from another study population. We estimated the association between simulated plasma PCB-153 levels and birth weight using linear regression models. Results: The plasma PCB-153 level profiles generated with the pharmacokinetic model were comparable to measured levels in 10 pregnant women. We estimated a 118-g decrease in birth weight (95% CI: -129, -106 g) for each 1-μg/L increase in simulated cord plasma PCB-153, compared with the 150-g decrease estimated based on the previous meta-analysis. The estimated decrease in birth weight was reduced to -6 g (95% CI: -18, 6 g) when adjusted for simulated gestational weight gain. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that associations previously noted between PCB levels and birth weight may be attributable to confounding by maternal weight gain during pregnancy.

Michaelsson K.,Uppsala University | Wolk A.,Karolinska Institutet | Langenskiold S.,Uppsala University | Basu S.,Uppsala University | And 4 more authors.
BMJ (Online) | Year: 2014

Objective To examine whether high milk consumption is associated with mortality and fractures in women and men.Design Cohort studies.Setting Three counties in central Sweden.Participants Two large Swedish cohorts, one with 61 433 women (39-74 years at baseline 1987-90) and one with 45 339 men (45-79 years at baseline 1997), were administered food frequency questionnaires. The women responded to a second food frequency questionnaire in 1997.Main outcome measure Multivariable survival models were applied to determine the association between milk consumption and time to mortality or fracture.Results During a mean follow-up of 20.1 years, 15 541 women died and 17 252 had a fracture, of whom 4259 had a hip fracture. In the male cohort with a mean follow-up of 11.2 years, 10 112 men died and 5066 had a fracture, with 1166 hip fracture cases. In women the adjusted mortality hazard ratio for three or more glasses of milk a day compared with less than one glass a day was 1.93 (95% confidence interval 1.80 to 2.06). For every glass of milk, the adjusted hazard ratio of all cause mortality was 1.15 (1.13 to 1.17) in women and 1.03 (1.01 to 1.04) in men. For every glass of milk in women no reduction was observed in fracture risk with higher milk consumption for any fracture (1.02, 1.00 to 1.04) or for hip fracture (1.09, 1.05 to 1.13). The corresponding adjusted hazard ratios in men were 1.01 (0.99 to 1.03) and 1.03 (0.99 to 1.07). In subsamples of two additional cohorts, one in males and one in females, a positive association was seen between milk intake and both urine 8-iso-PGF2á (a biomarker of oxidative stress) and serum interleukin 6 (a main inflammatory biomarker).Conclusions High milk intake was associated with higher mortality in one cohort of women and in another cohort of men, and with higher fracture incidence in women. Given the observational study designs with the inherent possibility of residual confounding and reverse causation phenomena, a cautious interpretation of the results is recommended.

Harari F.,Karolinska Institutet | Engstrom K.,Lund University | Concha G.,Swedish National Food Agency | Colque G.,Hospital Dr. Nicolas Cayetano Pagano | And 3 more authors.
Environmental Health Perspectives | Year: 2013

Background: In humans, inorganic arsenic is metabolized to methylated metabolites mainly by arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (AS3MT). AS3MT polymorphisms are associated with arsenic metabolism efficiency. Recently, a putative N-6-adenine-specific DNA methyltransferase 1 (N6AMT1) was found to methylate arsenic in vitro. Objective: We evaluated the role of N6AMT1 polymorphisms in arsenic methylation efficiency in humans. Methods: We assessed arsenic methylation efficiency in 188 women exposed to arsenic via drinking water (~ 200 μg/L) in the Argentinean Andes by measuring the relative concentrations of arsenic metabolites in urine [inorganic arsenic, methylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid] by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with hydride generation and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. We performed genotyping for N6AMT1 and AS3MT polymorphisms by Taqman assays, and gene expression (in blood; n = 63) with Illumina HumanHT-12 v4.0. Results: Five N6AMT1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; rs1997605, rs2205449, rs2705671, rs16983411, and rs1048546) and two N6AMT1 haplotypes were significantly associated with the percentage of MMA (%MMA) in urine, even after adjusting for AS3MT haplotype. %MMA increased monotonically according to the number of alleles for each SNP (e.g., for rs1048546, mean %MMA was 7.5% for GG, 8.8% for GT, and 9.7% for TT carriers). Three SNPs were in linkage disequilibrium (R2 > 0.8). Estimated associations for joint effects of N6AMT1 (haplotype 1) and AS3MT (haplotype 2) were generally consistent with expectations for additive effects of each haplotype on %MMA. Carriers of N6AMT1 genotypes associated with lower %MMA showed the lowest N6AMT1 expression, but associations were monotonic according to copy number for only one genotype and one haplotype. Conclusions: N6AMT1 polymorphisms were associated with arsenic methylation in Andean women, independent of AS3MT. N6AMT1 polymorphisms may be susceptibility markers for arsenic-related toxic effects.

Eliasson L.,SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden | Isaksson S.,SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden | Lovenklev M.,SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden | Lovenklev M.,Swedish National Food Agency | Ahrne L.,SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden
Frontiers in Microbiology | Year: 2015

There is currently a need in developing new decontamination technologies for spices due to limitations of existing technologies, mainly regarding their effects on spices' sensory quality. In the search of new decontamination solutions, it is of interest to compare different technologies, to provide the industry with knowledge for taking decisions concerning appropriate decontamination technologies for spices. The present study compares infrared (IR) and microwave decontamination of naturally contaminated paprika powder after adjustment of water activity to 0.88. IR respectively microwave heating was applied to quickly heat up paprika powder to 98°C, after which the paprika sample was transferred to a conventional oven set at 98°C to keep the temperature constant during a holding time up to 20 min. In the present experimental set-up microwave treatment at 98°C for 20 min resulted in a reduction of 4.8 log units of the total number of mesophilic bacteria, while the IR treatment showed a 1 log unit lower reduction for the corresponding temperature and treatment time. Microwave and IR heating created different temperature profiles and moisture distribution within the paprika sample during the heating up part of the process, which is likely to have influenced the decontamination efficiency. The results of this study are used to discuss the difficulties in comparing two thermal technologies on equal conditions due to differences in their heating mechanisms. © 2015 Eliasson, Isaksson, Lövenklev and Ahrné.

Johansson J.H.,University of Stockholm | Berger U.,University of Stockholm | Vestergren R.,University of Stockholm | Vestergren R.,Norwegian Institute For Air Research | And 4 more authors.
Environmental Pollution | Year: 2014

The aim of this study was to determine how dietary exposure to PFAAs has changed over the period when major production changes occurred. Archived samples (1999-2010) of eggs, milk and farmed rainbow trout were analyzed by ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Statistically significant decreasing trends were observed for concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS) in fish (p < 0.002 and p < 0.032, respectively) and eggs (p < 0.001 for both compounds). Concentrations of PFOS in fish and eggs decreased by a factor of 10 and 40, respectively. In eggs there was also a statistically significant decreasing trend in concentrations of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). The results of this study demonstrate that PFAA concentrations in food items from agricultural food chains and aquatic food chains close to sources respond rapidly to changes in environmental emissions. Implications for the overall understanding of human exposure are discussed. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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