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Lissner L.,Gothenburg University | Sohlstrom A.,Swedish National Food Administration | Sundblom E.,Karolinska Institutet | Sjoberg A.,Gothenburg University
Obesity Reviews | Year: 2010

The aim of this review is to synthesize published evidence on the most recent trends in overweight and obesity among Swedish children. Specifically, trends are reported among fourth graders (10-11 years) from six different municipalities between 1999 and 2005. Weights and heights in representative samples of children within each area were measured by school nurses as part of routine school health examinations. Standardized definitions of overweight, obesity and thinness were calculated by methods described by Cole et al. in 2000 and 2007. In Stockholm, obesity prevalence during academic years starting 1999 and 2003 decreased non-significantly from 4.4% to 2.8% in girls, and increased non-significantly from 3.2% to 3.8% among boys. In Gothenburg, comparing academic years starting 2000 and 2004, prevalence of overweight in girls decreased from 19.6% to 15.9% (P < 0.01) while thinness increased from 9.5% to 11.9% (P < 0.05); no significant changes were observed in boys. Finally, the Swedish National Institute of Public Health released figures from Karlstad, Umeå, Västerås and Ystad in 2003-2005 during which time no trends in prevalence could be clearly shown. The stabilized rates are probably a result of regional and local actions that have taken place in many sectors of society, rather than one specific measure or national political action. © 2009 International Association for the Study of Obesity.


Glynn A.,Swedish National Food Administration | Glynn A.,Uppsala University | Larsdotter M.,Swedish National Food Administration | Aune M.,Swedish National Food Administration | And 3 more authors.
Chemosphere | Year: 2011

We studied pregnancy-related changes in serum concentrations of five polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, CB 118, CB 138, CB 153, CB 156, CB 180), three hydroxylated PCB metabolites (4-OH-CB107, 4-OH-CB146, 4-OH-CB187), and pentachlorophenol (PCP). Median serum lipid content increased 2-fold between early (weeks 9-13) and late pregnancy (weeks 35-36) (N = 10), whereas median PCB levels in serum lipids decreased 20-46%, suggesting a dilution of PCB concentrations in serum lipids. Nevertheless, strong positive intra-individual correlations (Spearman's r = 0.61-0.99) were seen for PCBs during the whole study period. Thus, if samples have been collected within the same relative narrow time window during pregnancy, PCB results from one single sampling occasion can be used in assessment of relative differences in body burdens during the whole pregnancy period. Concentrations of OH-PCBs in blood serum tended to decline as pregnancy progressed, although among some women the concentrations increased at the end of pregnancy. Positive intra-individual correlations (r = 0.66-0.99) between OH-PCB concentrations were observed during the first and second trimester, whereas correlations with third trimester concentrations were more diverging (r = -0.70-0.85). No decline in PCP concentrations was observed during pregnancy and no significant correlations were found between concentrations at different sampling periods. Our results suggest that for both OH-PCBs and PCP, sampling has to be more specifically timed depending on the time period during pregnancy that is of interest. The differences in patterns of intra- and inter-individual variability of the studied compounds may be due to a combination of factors, including lipid solubility, persistence of the compounds, distribution in blood, metabolic formation, and pregnancy-related changes in body composition and physiological processes. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Glynn A.,Swedish National Food Administration | Lignell S.,Swedish National Food Administration | Darnerud P.O.,Swedish National Food Administration | Aune M.,Swedish National Food Administration | And 4 more authors.
Environment International | Year: 2011

Early life exposure to halogenated persistent organic pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), the DDT metabolite p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (p,p'-DDE), polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), may affect human health. We determined if there are regional differences in mother's milk levels of these compounds in Sweden. In year 2000-2004, milk was sampled from 204 randomly recruited primiparas from four regions of Sweden. Levels of the compounds were measured by gas chromatography with dual electron-capture detectors. Women were recruited at delivery in three hospitals located in urban areas in southern and central Sweden (Lund, Gothenburg and Uppsala), and in one hospital located in a more rural area in northern Sweden (Lycksele). Information about dietary habits and medical/life-style factors were collected by questionnaires. Among PCB congeners, CB 153, CB 138 and CB 180 showed the highest median concentrations (18-48. ng/g mother's milk lipid), whereas more than 50% of the women had CB 52, CB 101, CB 114, and CB 157 levels below the LOQ (0.3-1.5. ng/g lipid). Median p,p'-DDE levels were in the range of 46-78. ng/g lipid. BDE 47 showed the highest median concentrations (1-2. ng/g lipid) among the brominated compounds, whereas more than 50% of the women had levels of BDE 28, BDE 66, BDE 138, BDE 154, and HBCD below the LOQ (0.05-0.10. ng/g lipid). Regional differences in median organohalogen compound concentrations were small, less than 2-fold. Lycksele women generally had the lowest levels of Σmono-and Σdi-ortho PCBs, mainly due to a lower average age. In contrast, these women had higher tetra- to penta-brominated PBDE levels, but no diet or life-style factor could explain this finding. Wide ranges of PBDEs and HBCD levels (up to 200-fold) were found, especially in the Lycksele area. The highest levels of PBDE were in the range of average levels found in mother's milk from North America, suggesting that food may not be the only source of exposure to PBDEs among some individuals. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Lundstedt-Enkel K.,Uppsala University | Karlsson D.,Swedish National Food Administration | Darnerud P.O.,Swedish National Food Administration
Journal of Chemometrics | Year: 2010

This study explored possible interaction effects on animal liver microsomal enzymes and thyroid hormones of two flame retardants: Bromkal 70-5 DE, a mixture of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (hereafter called PBDE); and Cereclor 70L, a mixture of chlorinated paraffins (hereafter called CP).Female Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to these compounds in dose ranges of 1.3-18.7 mg/kg bw/day (PBDE) and 1-55 mg/kg bw/day (CP), by gavage for 14 days. Biological responses were measured on liver somatic index (LSI) and hepatic enzyme activity of (a) ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) (indicating CYP1A1 activity), (b) pentoxyresorufin-O-depentylase (PROD) (indicating CYP2B activity) and (c) the phase II conjugation enzyme uridine diphosphoglucuronosyl transferase (UDP-GT). The levels of total and free thyroxine hormone in rat plasma (TT4 and FT4, respectively) were also measured. In the experimental work, a Doehlert uniform shell design was used in order to select the combination of concentrations of PBDE and CP administered to the rats. Eight different combinations were used, including a control. The measured responses were modelled with multiple linear regression (MLR), giving response surface plots. The results showed strong synergism between the two flame retardants at one particular exposure combination, resulting in increased hepatic microsomal enzyme responses and decreased serum T4 concentrations. Notably, the exposure combination causing the most marked effects represented intermediate doses of both substances. The mechanisms behind the observed effects are unknown, but may involve induction or inhibition of enzyme systems. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Lundstedt-Enkel K.,Uppsala University | Lundstedt-Enkel K.,Swedish Museum of Natural History | Bjerselius R.,Swedish National Food Administration | Asplund L.,University of Stockholm | And 2 more authors.
Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2010

Baltic Sea herring (Clupea harengus) is a pelagic, zoo-planktivorous fish and young (2-5 years old) individuals of this species are sampled annually in the Swedish marine monitoring program. This study determined concentrations of organochlorines (OCs) and brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in dorsal muscle from herring (n = 60) of varying age (2-13 years), weight (25-200 g), and body length (16-29 cm) caught at three locations in the Swedish part of the Baltic Proper. In order to ensure that the fish biology was as varied as possible, though still similar from all sampling sites, the fish to be chemically analyzed were selected from a large number of fish with determined biology using Multivariate Design. In statistical evaluation of the data, univariate and multivariate data analysis techniques, e.g. principal components analysis (PCA), partial least-squares regression (PLS), and orthogonal PLS (OPLS), were used. The results showed that the fish are exposed to a cocktail of contaminants and levels are presented. Significant OPLS models were found for all biological variables versus concentrations of OCs and BFRs, showing that fish biology covaries with fish contaminant concentrations. Correlation coefficients were as high as 0.98 for e.g. βHCH concentration (wet weight) versus the lipid content. Lastly, the OC concentrations in herring muscle were modeled against the BFR concentrations to determine whether concentrations of either could be used to predict the other. It was found that OPLS models allowed BFR concentrations to be predicted from OC concentrations with high, but varying, accuracy (R 2Ys between 0.93 to 0.75). Thus, fish biology and contaminant concentrations are interwoven, and fish biological parameters can be used to calculate (predict) contaminant concentrations. It is also possible to predict the BFR concentrations in an individual fish from its concentrations of OCs with very high accuracy. © 2010 American Chemical Society.


Concha G.,Swedish National Food Administration | Broberg K.,Lund University | Grander M.,Karolinska Institutet | Cardozo A.,Hospital Dr Nicolas Cayetano Pagano | And 2 more authors.
Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2010

Elevated concentrations of arsenic in drinking water are common worldwide, however, little is known about the presence of other potentially toxic elements. We analyzed 31 different elements in drinking water collected in San Antonio de los Cobres and five surrounding Andean villages in Argentina, and in urine of the inhabitants, using ICP-MS. Besides confirmation of elevated arsenic concentrations in the drinking water (up to 210 μg/L), we found remarkably high concentrations of lithium (highest 1000 μg/L), cesium (320 μg/L), rubidium (47 μg/L), and boron (5950 μg/L). Similarly elevated concentrations of arsenic, lithium, cesium, and boron were found in urine of the studied women (N = 198): village median values ranged from 26 to 266 μg/L of arsenic, 340 to 4550 μg/L of lithium, 34 to 531 μg/L of cesium, and 2980 to 16560 μg/L of boron. There is an apparent risk of toxic effects of long-term exposure to several of the elements, and studies on associations with adverse human health effects are warranted, particularly considering the combined, life-long exposure. Because of the observed wide range of concentrations, all water sources used for drinking water should be screened for a large number of elements; obviously, this applies to all drinking water sources globally. © 2010 American Chemical Society.


Vestergren R.,University of Stockholm | Berger U.,University of Stockholm | Glynn A.,Swedish National Food Administration | Cousins I.T.,University of Stockholm
Environment International | Year: 2012

Dietary intake has been hypothesized to be the major pathway of human exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs). However, difficulties associated with the analysis of PFAAs at ultra trace levels in food samples have prevented the confirmation of this hypothesis. In this study, the dietary intake of PFAAs for the general Swedish population was estimated by applying a highly sensitive analytical method to a set of archived food market basket samples from 1999, 2005 and 2010. Dietary exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) (860-1440pgkg-1day-1), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) (90-210pgkg-1day-1), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) (50-110pgkg-1day-1) and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) (70-80pgkg-1day-1) was dominated by the consumption of fish and meat. In contrast, dietary exposure to PFOA (350-690pgkg-1day-1) originated from low levels (8-62pgg-1) found in several high consumption food categories including cereals, dairy products, vegetables and fruit. The dietary intakes of PFOS and PFOA estimated in this study were 4 to 10 times lower compared to previous exposure modeling studies. Nevertheless, the dietary intake of PFOS and PFOA was still a factor of 6 to 10 higher than exposure through ingestion of household dust and drinking water estimated for the general Swedish population. For perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA) and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS) drinking water intake was the major exposure pathway (36-53% of the total exposure) whereas dust ingestion made a significant contribution (27-49%) to the total exposure for PFHxA, PFHpA, PFNA, perfluorotridecanoic acid (PFTrDA) and perfluorotetradecanoic acid (PFTeDA). Dietary intakes varied by less than a factor of three for all PFAAs during the different sampling years which demonstrates that dietary intake has been fairly constant over the past decade when many manufacturing changes occurred. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Tornkvist A.,Swedish National Food Administration | Glynn A.,Swedish National Food Administration | Aune M.,Swedish National Food Administration | Darnerud P.O.,Swedish National Food Administration | Ankarberg E.H.,Swedish National Food Administration
Chemosphere | Year: 2011

Based on consumption data statistics, food items from four regions in Sweden were sampled in a so-called market basket study. Food items from five food groups, i.e. fish, meat, dairy products, eggs and fat/oils, were analyzed for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) followed by per capita intake calculations. The highest levels of PCDD/F, PCB, PBDE, HBCD and chlorinated pesticides were found in the fish/fish products. The estimated market basket per capita intake of PCDD/F and dl-PCB was 0.7pg WHO-TEQkgbw -1d -1 (TEFs from 1998). The intake of ∑PCB was estimated to 4.9ngkgbw -1d -1 and fish was found to be the major contributor with 64%. The intake of ∑PBDE was found to be 0.7ngkgbw -1d -1. Fish (38%) and dairy products (31%) were the largest contributors to the total PBDE intake. The intake of HBCD was estimated to 0.14ngkgbw -1d -1. HBCD mainly came from fish (65%), but also dairy products (24%) and meat (10%) contributed. Also regarding the chlorinated pesticides, fish was found to be the major contributor, with 51% of the ∑DDT coming from fish. The intake of ∑DDT, ∑HCH and HCB was 4.0, 1.0 and 1.1ngkgbw -1d -1, respectively. Most of the ∑HCH and HCB originate from dairy products (43% and 55%, respectively). This study shows that the levels, and intake, of different POPs from food of animal origin in the market basket of 2005 seem to have decreased since the market basket study in 1999. © 2011.


Broberg K.,Lund University | Concha G.,Swedish National Food Administration | Engstrom K.,Lund University | Lindvall M.,Lund University | And 2 more authors.
Environmental Health Perspectives | Year: 2011

High concentrations of lithium in drinking water were previously discovered in the Argentinean Andes Mountains. Lithium is used worldwide for treatment of bipolar disorder and treatment-resistant depression. One known side effect is altered thyroid function. Objectives: We assessed associations between exposure to lithium from drinking water and other environmental sources and thyroid function. Methods: Women (n = 202) were recruited in four Andean villages in northern Argentina. Lithium exposure was assessed based on concentrations in spot urine samples, measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Thyroid function was evaluated by plasma free thyroxine (T4) and pituitary gland thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), analyzed by routine immunometric methods. Results: The median urinary lithium concentration was 3,910 μg/L (5th, 95th percentiles, 270 μg/L, 10,400 μg/L). Median plasma concentrations (5th, 95th percentiles) of T4 and TSH were 17 pmol/L (13 pmol/L, 21 pmol/L) and 1.9 mIU/L, (0.68 mIU/L, 4.9 mIU/L), respectively. Urine lithium was inversely associated with T4 [β for a 1,000-μg/L increase = -0.19; 95% confidence interval (CI), -0.31 to -0.068; p = 0.002] and positively associated with TSH (β = 0.096; 95% CI, 0.033 to 0.16; p = 0.003). Both associations persisted after adjustment (for T4, β = -0.17; 95% CI, -0.32 to -0.015; p = 0.032; for TSH: β = 0.089; 95% CI, 0.024 to 0.15; p = 0.007). Urine selenium was positively associated with T4 (adjusted T4 for a 1 μg/L increase: β = 0.041; 95% CI, 0.012 to 0.071; p = 0.006). Conclusions: Exposure to lithium via drinking water and other environmental sources may affect thyroid function, consistent with known side effects of medical treatment with lithium. This stresses the need to screen for lithium in all drinking water sources.


PubMed | Swedish National Food Administration
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Chemosphere | Year: 2011

Based on consumption data statistics, food items from four regions in Sweden were sampled in a so-called market basket study. Food items from five food groups, i.e. fish, meat, dairy products, eggs and fat/oils, were analyzed for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) followed by per capita intake calculations. The highest levels of PCDD/F, PCB, PBDE, HBCD and chlorinated pesticides were found in the fish/fish products. The estimated market basket per capita intake of PCDD/F and dl-PCB was 0.7pg WHO-TEQ kg bw(-1) d(-1) (TEFs from 1998). The intake of PCB was estimated to 4.9 ng kg bw(-1) d(-1) and fish was found to be the major contributor with 64%. The intake of PBDE was found to be 0.7 ng kg bw(-1) d(-1). Fish (38%) and dairy products (31%) were the largest contributors to the total PBDE intake. The intake of HBCD was estimated to 0.14 ng kg bw(-1) d(-1). HBCD mainly came from fish (65%), but also dairy products (24%) and meat (10%) contributed. Also regarding the chlorinated pesticides, fish was found to be the major contributor, with 51% of the DDT coming from fish. The intake of DDT, HCH and HCB was 4.0, 1.0 and 1.1 ng kg bw(-1) d(-1), respectively. Most of the HCH and HCB originate from dairy products (43% and 55%, respectively). This study shows that the levels, and intake, of different POPs from food of animal origin in the market basket of 2005 seem to have decreased since the market basket study in 1999.

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