Boin A.,Leiden University |
Rhinard M.,University of Stockholm |
Ekengren M.,Swedish National Defence College
Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management | Year: 2014
The European Union (EU) has modest but promising capacities to assist member states overwhelmed by disaster through its Civil Protection Mechanism. The EU also routinely sends civil and military missions to hotspots outside EU territory. But these capacities do not suffice in the face of transboundary crises: threats that cross geographical and policy borders within the Union. Examples include epidemics, financial crises, floods, and cyber terrorism. Nation states cannot cope with these threats without international collaboration. In this article, we explore the EU's efforts to develop transboundary crisis management capacities. We describe these budding capacities, explain their policy origins, and explore their future potential. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Boin A.,Leiden University |
Bynander F.,Swedish National Defence College
Geografiska Annaler, Series A: Physical Geography | Year: 2015
In virtually every assessment of responses to large-scale crises and disasters, coordination is identified as a critical failure factor. After the crisis, official committees and political opponents often characterize the early phases of the response as a 'failure to coordinate.' Not surprisingly, improved coordination quickly emerges as the prescribed solution. Coordination, then, is apparently both the problem and the solution. But the proposed solutions rarely solve the problem: coordination continues to mar most crises and disasters. In the absence of a shared body of knowledge on coordination, it is hard to formulate a normative framework that allows for systematic assessment of coordination in times of crisis. As coordination is widely perceived as an important function of crisis and disaster management, this absence undermines a fair and balanced assessment of crisis management performance. This paper seeks to address that void. We aim to develop a framework that explains both the failure and success of crisis coordination. We do this by exploring the relevant literature, reformulating what coordination is and distilling from research the factors that cause failure and success. © 2014 Swedish Society for Anthropology and Geography.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: NFRP-12-2015 | Award Amount: 3.05M | Year: 2015
HoNESt (History of Nuclear Energy and Society) involves an interdisciplinary team with many experienced researchers and 24 high profile research institutions. HoNESts goal is to conduct a three-year interdisciplinary analysis of the experience of nuclear developments and its relationship to contemporary society with the aim of improving the understanding of the dynamics over the last 60 years. HoNESts results will assist the current debate on future energy sources and the transition to affordable, secure, and clean energy production. Civil societys interaction with nuclear developments changes over time, and it is locally, nationally and transnationally specific. HoNESt will embrace the complexity of political, technological and economic challenges; safety; risk perception and communication, public engagement, media framing, social movements, etc. Research on these interactions has thus far been mostly fragmented. We will develop a pioneering integrated interdisciplinary approach, which is conceptually informed by Large Technological Systems (LTS) and Integrated Socio-technical System (IST), based on a close and innovative collaboration of historians and social scientists in this field. HoNESt will first collect extensive historical data from over 20 countries. These data will be jointly analyzed by historians and social scientists, through the lens of an innovative integrated approach, in order to improve our understanding of the mechanisms underlying decision making and associated citizen engagement with nuclear power. Through an innovative application of backcasting techniques, HoNESt will bring novel content to the debate on nuclear sustainable engagement futures. Looking backwards to the present, HoNESt will strategize and plan how these suitable engagement futures could be achieved. HoNESt will engage key stakeholders from industry, policy makers and civil society in a structured dialogue to insert the results into the public debate on nuclear energy.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: ENV.2009.4.2.3.2 | Award Amount: 1.68M | Year: 2010
At the heart of this project lies the development, trialling and operationalisation of a tool (STAVE), designed to support the work of policy-making for sustainability in real-world settings. The tool will support processes of knowledge brokerage, promoting the appropriate application of existing research findings, and the generation of new knowledge which is focused on specific policy objectives. In substantive terms, the project responds to recent work on sustainable consumption, which has provided compelling arguments about the difficulties entailed in seeking to address anthropogenic climate change by attempting to shift patterns of consumer behaviour. The project will take the form of a series of collaborative problem-focused interventions with policy-makers which will engage with their current work in these areas. STAVE will allow these policy-makers to examine the nature and validity of assumptions about human sensibilities, reasoning and action that are incorporated into the development of policy. The project will yield detailed guidance on how best to utilise STAVE across a variety of organisational and policy-specific environments. It will also generate important insights into the mechanisms by which different sources of knowledge are utilised in the practical activity of policymaking; and into the nature of lay citizens practical reasoning and everyday activities, as they relate to the sustainability of their patterns of consumption.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: SEC-2009-4.3-03 | Award Amount: 3.84M | Year: 2010
The INDIGO project aims to research, develop and validate an innovative system integrating the latest advances in Virtual Reality, Simulation and Artificial Intelligence in order to homogenise and enhance both the operational preparedness and the management of an actual complex crisis. It will enable: * the 3D interactive and realistic visualisation of the complete crisis environment, including data coming from the field, simulation results, and building interiors. * the simulation of different evolving scenarios for planning, training, and anticipating future states and impending developments during operations, and analyse events after the crisis. * the simultaneous training of decision makers, crisis managers as well as first responders and emergency field units that will be influenced by the simulated scenario and that will reciprocally influence its evolution. * the simultaneous involvement of multiple participants, thanks to its distributed architecture, while offering a unique pictorial way of sharing and communicating complex knowledge across organisation boundaries. In addition, INDIGO will propose a European emergency symbology reference for 2D/3D maps. This will fill an important gap by offering a common visual reference that can be used across Europe to facilitate the immediate and general understanding of the situation, thus improving decision making across organisational boundaries. The definition of the functional specifications of the system will be driven by the analysis of the needs of real end-users participating in the project as partners or involved in the INDIGO User Group. These organisations will test and validate the outcomes of the project with real-world scenarios and multiple emergency organisations. By the end of the project a packaged system integrating all the proposed technologies will have been developed and provided to them under two versions for purpose of validation and refinement of needs and specifications.