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Geng Q.,JTI Swedish Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering | Stuthridge R.W.,Purdue University | Field W.E.,Purdue University
Journal of Agromedicine

In consequence of working in cold environments, agricultural workers may be exposed to higher risk of cold-related injuries, compared with the general population. These injuries can include tissue damage due to the exposure to subfreezing temperatures, more generalized symptoms caused by hypothermia, and secondary injuries caused by impaired performance. Risk of cold injury is increased for older workers and for those with disabling health conditions, both of which occur in above-average numbers in agriculture. Based on a selective review of the literature and case studies assembled by Purdue's Breaking New Ground Resource Center, an overview is presented of the mechanisms and symptoms of cold injuries, together with practical suggestions to help reduce risks of cold injuries for workers in agricultural settings. Special attention is given to potential risks to individuals with physical disabilities. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source

Risberg K.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Sun L.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Leven L.,JTI Swedish Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering | Horn S.J.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Schnurer A.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
Bioresource Technology

Non-treated or steam-exploded straw in co-digestion with cattle manure was evaluated as a substrate for biogas production compared with manure as the sole substrate. All digestions were performed in laboratory-scale CSTR reactors (5L) operating with an organic loading late of approximately 2.8g VS/L/day, independent of substrate mixture. The hydraulic retention was 25days and an operating temperature of 37, 44 or 52°C. The co-digestion with steam exploded straw and manure was evaluated with two different mixtures, with different proportion. The results showed stable performance but low methane yields (0.13-0.21NLCH4/kg VS) for both manure alone and in co-digestion with the straw. Straw appeared to give similar yield as manure and steam-explosion treatment of the straw did not increase gas yields. Furthermore, there were only slight differences at the different operating temperatures. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Acevedo F.,University of the Frontier | Pizzul L.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Castillo M.D.P.,JTI Swedish Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering | Cuevas R.,University of the Frontier | Diez M.C.,University of the Frontier
Journal of Hazardous Materials

The degradation of three- and four-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Kirk medium by Anthracophyllum discolor, a white-rot fungus isolated from the forest of southern Chile, was evaluated. In addition, the removal efficiency of three-, four- and five-ring PAHs in contaminated soil bioaugmented with A. discolor in the absence and presence of indigenous soil microorganisms was investigated. Production of lignin-degrading enzymes and PAH mineralization in the soil were also determined. A. discolor was able to degrade PAHs in Kirk medium with the highest removal occurring in a PAH mixture, suggesting synergistic effects between PAHs or possible cometabolism. A high removal capability for phenanthrene (62%), anthracene (73%), fluoranthene (54%), pyrene (60%) and benzo(a)pyrene (75%) was observed in autoclaved soil inoculated with A. discolor in the absence of indigenous microorganisms, associated with the production of manganese peroxidase (MnP). The metabolites found in the PAH degradation were anthraquinone, phthalic acid, 4-hydroxy-9-fluorenone, 9-fluorenone and 4,5-dihydropyrene. A. discolor was able to mineralize 9% of the phenanthrene. In non-autoclaved soil, the inoculation with A. discolor did not improve the removal efficiency of PAHs. Suitable conditions must be found to promote a successful fungal bioaugmentation in non-autoclaved soils. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source

Tortella G.R.,University of the Frontier | Rubilar O.,University of the Frontier | Castillo M.D.P.,JTI Swedish Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering | Cea M.,University of the Frontier | And 2 more authors.

The biomixture is a principal element controlling the degradation efficacy of the biobed. The maturity of the biomixture used in the biobed affects its overall performance of the biobed, but this is not well studied yet. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of using a typical composition of Swedish biomixture at different maturity stages on the degradation of chlorpyrifos. Tests were made using biomixture at three maturity stages: 0d (BC0), 15d (BC15) and 30d (BC30); chlorpyrifos was added to the biobeds at final concentration of 200, 320 and 480mgkg -1. Chlorpyrifos degradation in the biomixture was monitored over time. Formation of TCP (3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyrinidol) was also quantified, and hydrolytic and phenoloxidase activities measured. The biomixture efficiently degraded chlorpyrifos (degradation efficiency >50%) in all the evaluated maturity stages. However, chlorpyrifos degradation decreased with increasing concentrations of the pesticide. TCP formation occurred in all biomixtures, but a major accumulation was observed in BC30. Significant differences were found in both phenoloxidase and hydrolytic activities in the three maturity stages of biomixture evaluated. Also, these two biological activities were affected by the increase in pesticide concentration. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that chlorpyrifos can be degraded efficiently in all the evaluated maturity stages. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Rodhe L.,JTI Swedish Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering | Halling M.A.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
Grass and Forage Science

Slurry injection into grassland has advantages as it decreases ammonia losses, but may harm grassland plants. In two field experiments, four different types of knife/tine equipment were tested on three different grassland species (monocultures of red clover, perennial ryegrass and red fescue), with or without added mineral nitrogen (N), but without slurry application. During 2 years, in two separate experiments, the injection treatments were applied in spring or in summer to different plots. Crop damage was assessed by a range of methods. It was concluded that both the timing and the design of the knife/injector equipment had a significant influence on yield when used in grassland, with the greatest decrease in yield after spring use. Mean total yield over 2 years (no treatment = 100) for timing and species, with N added, was 94 (vertical knife), 92 (vertical and horizontal knife), 96 (double disc tine) and 94 (tubulator tine). With no N added, the relative yield decrease caused by equipment was less. Red fescue seemed to be a little more sensitive than the other species at spring treatment in one of the 2 years. Leaf area index could be useful for measuring crop damage. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

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