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Levin L.I.,U.S. Army | Munger K.L.,Harvard University | O'Reilly E.J.,Harvard University | Falk K.I.,Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control | And 2 more authors.
Annals of Neurology | Year: 2010

To determine whether multiple sclerosis (MS) risk increases following primary infection with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), we conducted a nested case-control study including 305 individuals who developed MS and 610 matched controls selected among the >8 million active-duty military personnel whose serum has been stored in the Department of Defense Serum Repository. Time of EBV infection was determined by measuring antibody titers in serial serum samples collected before MS onset among cases, and on matched dates among controls. Ten (3.3%) cases and 32 (5.2%) controls were initially EBV negative. All of the 10 EBV-negative cases became EBV positive before MS onset; in contrast, only 35.7% (n = 10) of the 28 controls with follow-up samples seroconverted (exact p value = 0.0008). We conclude that MS risk is extremely low among individuals not infected with EBV, but it increases sharply in the same individuals following EBV infection. © 2010 American Neurological Association. Source

Stensvold C.R.,Statens Serum Institute | Lebbad M.,Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control | Clark C.G.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
Molecular Biology and Evolution | Year: 2012

Iodamoeba is the last genus of obligately parasitic human protist whose phylogenetic position is unknown. Iodamoeba small subunit ribosomal DNA sequences were obtained using samples from three host species, and phylogenetic analyses convincingly placed Iodamoeba as a sister taxon to Endolimax. This clade in turn branches among free-living amoeboflagellates of the genus Mastigamoeba. Two Iodamoeba ribosomal lineages (RL1 and RL2) were detected whose sequences differ by 31%, each of which is found in both human and nonhuman hosts. © The Author 2011. Source

Akerlund T.,Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control
Euro surveillance : bulletin européen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin | Year: 2011

We report the results of two nationwide surveillance studies of Clostridium difficile infection conducted during 2008 and 2009 in Sweden. The first study aimed to identify and quantify the proportion of C. difficile isolates with decreased susceptibility to moxifloxacin, particularly those of PCR-ribotype 027. From December 2007 to September 2008, 20 of 28 regional laboratories sent 585 isolates to the Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control for typing. A majority of the isolates (454 of 585; 78%) belonged to four PCR ribotypes (012, SE37, 017 and 046), all clustered in geographical regions. Only two type 027 isolates were found, both from the same patient. In the second study, involving all 28 regional laboratories, all consecutive C. difficile isolates collected during two time periods in 2009 (n=364) were typed and tested for susceptibility to clindamycin, erythromycin, moxifloxacin, metronidazole and vancomycin. The three most common PCR ribotypes were SE21, 001 and 020 (22% of all isolates). Types 012, 017, and 046 were geographically clustered and associated with decreased susceptibility to moxifloxacin, clindamycin and erythromcin. The extent of moxifloxacin prescription was highly variable among counties, indicating a need for careful monitoring of prescription rates to follow its role in C. difficile epidemiology. Source

Lundstrom J.,Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control
PLoS neglected tropical diseases | Year: 2010

Neurocysticercosis is a disease caused by the oral ingestion of eggs from the human parasitic worm Taenia solium. Although drugs are available they are controversial because of the side effects and poor efficiency. An expressed sequence tag (EST) library is a method used to describe the gene expression profile and sequence of mRNA from a specific organism and stage. Such information can be used in order to find new targets for the development of drugs and to get a better understanding of the parasite biology. Here an EST library consisting of 5760 sequences from the pig cysticerca stage has been constructed. In the library 1650 unique sequences were found and of these, 845 sequences (52%) were novel to T. solium and not identified within other EST libraries. Furthermore, 918 sequences (55%) were of unknown function. Amongst the 25 most frequently expressed sequences 6 had no relevant similarity to other sequences found in the Genbank NR DNA database. A prediction of putative signal peptides was also performed and 4 among the 25 were found to be predicted with a signal peptide. Proposed vaccine and diagnostic targets T24, Tsol18/HP6 and Tso31d could also be identified among the 25 most frequently expressed. An EST library has been produced from pig cysticerca and analyzed. More than half of the different ESTs sequenced contained a sequence with no suggested function and 845 novel EST sequences have been identified. The library increases the knowledge about what genes are expressed and to what level. It can also be used to study different areas of research such as drug and diagnostic development together with parasite fitness via e.g. immune modulation. Source

Hulth A.,Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control
Euro surveillance : bulletin européen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin | Year: 2010

This paper discusses computer-supported outbreak detection using routine surveillance data, as implemented at six institutes for infectious disease control in five European countries. We give an overview of the systems used at the Statens Serum Institut (Denmark), Health Protection Agency (England, Wales and Northern Ireland), Robert Koch Institute (Germany), Governmental Institute of Public Health of Lower Saxony (Germany), National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (the Netherlands) and Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control (Sweden). Despite the usefulness of the algorithms or the outbreak detection procedure itself, all institutes have experienced certain limitations of the systems. The paper therefore concludes with a list of recommendations for institutes planning to introduce computer-supported outbreak detection, based on experiences on the practical usage of the systems. This list--which concerns usability, standard operating procedures and evaluation--might also inspire improvements of systems in use today. Source

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