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Glenngard A.H.,Swedish Institute for Health Economics IHE | Hjelmgren J.,RTI Health Solutions | Thomsen P.H.,University of Aarhus | Tvedten T.,Center for Therapy and Supervision
Nordic Journal of Psychiatry | Year: 2013

Background: The choice between different attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medications depends on different drug attributes. Economic evaluations of drugs often disregard the utility of other attributes compare with the drugs' efficacy. Aims: The aim of this study was to assess patient's preferences and elicit willingness-to-pay (WTP) for different drug attributes in the treatment of ADHD. Methods: 285 patients (117 parents for children below 15 years, 52 adolescents 15-17 years and 116 adults aged 18 years and above) from Sweden, Denmark and Norway completed a questionnaire concerning their ADHD drug treatment, and answered questions on their preferences using a discrete choice experiment (DCE). Included attributes were effectiveness, side-effects, dosing and price. Results: Effectiveness was the most important attribute, followed by side-effects and the number of dosings per day (all P < 0.001). The estimated monthly WTP for a drug generating full effectiveness, no side-effects and once-daily dosing was €790 for adolescents and €360 for adults. The estimated WTP for ADHD drugs with characteristics similar to existing drugs on the market was higher or in line with market prices (€37-180 for adolescents and €16-80 for adults). Regarding experience with current treatment, 19% of all patients in the study reported good functioning during the morning, day and evening. Conclusions: The gap between the monetary valuation of existing products and an optimally valued product suggest that there is room for improvements in the clinical management of ADHD. The results suggest that DCE is a method that can be used to value not only hypothetical scenarios but also can be used to value and distinguish between real-life scenarios. © 2013 Informa Healthcare. Source


Glenngard A.H.,Lund University | Glenngard A.H.,Swedish Institute for Health Economics IHE
Health Economics, Policy and Law | Year: 2013

In parallel to market-like reforms in Swedish primary care, the gathering and compilation of comparative information about providers, for example through survey tools, has been improved. Such information is increasingly being used to guide individuals' choice of provider and payers' assessments of provider performance, often without critically reflecting about underlying factors affecting the results. The purpose of this study was to analyze variation in patient satisfaction, with respect to organizational and structural factors, including the mix of registered individuals, among primary care providers, based on information from a national patient survey in primary care and register data in three Swedish county councils. Systematic variation in patient satisfaction was found with respect to both organizational and structural factors, including characteristics of registered individuals. Smaller practices and practices where a high proportion of all visits were with a doctor were associated with higher patient satisfaction. Also practices where registered individuals had a low level of social deprivation and a high overall illness on average were associated with higher patient satisfaction. Factors that are of relevance for how well providers perform according to patient surveys are more or less possible to control for providers. This adds to the complexity for the use of such information by individuals and payers to assess provider performance. Copyright © 2012 Cambridge University Press. Source


Rome A.,Lund University | Persson U.,Swedish Institute for Health Economics IHE | Ekdahl C.,Lund University | Gard G.,Lund University
Scandinavian Journal of Public Health | Year: 2010

Aims: To estimate the willingness to pay for health improvements among participants in the programme "Physical Activity on Prescription". The objective was also to examine predictors such as income, education level, health status, activity level and BMI, differences for long-and short-term health effects of physical activity and differences between a high-and low-intensity activity group. Methods: Willingness to pay (WTP) data were collected alongside a randomized, controlled trial in Sweden 2007, and 128 sedentary individuals, 20-80 years old (intervention/high-intensity group n=71, control/low-intensity group n=57), with lifestyle-related health problems answered open-ended questions in this contingent valuation study. Results: The highest mean WTP (E59/SEK 552) was stated for an immediate health improvement, but no significant differences compared with long-term health improvements. The high-intensity group showed higher WTP-values for all health improvements, but without significant differences compared with a low-intensity group. Regression analyses show strong associations between a higher level of education and the WTP for improved well-being and improved health, and also between income and the WTP for improved well-being. There are significant correlations between the WTPand the variables BMI, income and education level, as expected from economic theories. Conclusions: The willingness to pay for the health improvements of exercise is influenced by a higher education level, income and BMI. The highest WTP for a health outcome of physical activity is for an immediate health improvement. The results of this randomized controlled trial in primary health care may be of interest to decision makers when evaluating different approaches to promoting physical activity among people who are sedentary. © 2010 the Nordic Societies of Public Health. Source


Olofsson S.,Swedish Institute for Health Economics IHE | Wickstrom A.,Umea University | Hager Glenngard A.,Swedish Institute for Health Economics IHE | Persson U.,Swedish Institute for Health Economics IHE | And 2 more authors.
BioDrugs | Year: 2011

Background: Sweden is a high endemic region for multiple sclerosis (MS), a neurologic disorder characterized by repeated inflammatory episodes affecting the CNS. The disease has its peak age of onset at approximately 30 years and affects women twice as often as men. The young age of onset makes MS one of the major causes of reduced capacity to work due to neurologic disease in Western society. Natalizumab (Tysabri®) is among the new generation of biologic drugs for the treatment of MS. Clinical studies have demonstrated that natalizumab is an effective treatment for preventing relapses and inflammatory activity. Objective: The aim of the study was to estimate the monetary value of treatment with natalizumab on the ability to work in patients with MS in Sweden, based on a direct measurement of weekly hours worked before and after 1 year of treatment with natalizumab. Methods:A sample of patients, consisting of all patients who had started treatment with natalizumab during the period June 2007-May 2008, was identified through the Swedish Multiple Sclerosis Register (SMSreg). Data about sex, age, disease severity, and disease duration were collected from the register. Data about type of work and work capacity (number of hours worked per week) were collected retrospectively through a postal questionnaire. The average hours worked per week was estimated at baseline (2 weeks before treatment started) and at follow-up (50 weeks after treatment started), and the change was assigned an economic value using the human capital approach. Results: This study showed that after 50 weeks of treatment with natalizumab, people with MS increased their productivity by 3.3 hours per week on average (p < 0.01), which corresponded to an economic value of €3216 per person per year (year 2007 values). A shorter duration of illness or being 25-35 years old was significantly associated with a greater productivity gain (p = 0.025 and p = 0.002, respectively). Conclusion: A shorter duration of illness and a lower age at the start of treatment were significantly associated with a greater productivity gain after 50 weeks of treatment with natalizumab, which indicates that it is more beneficial to initiate efficient therapy early in patients with MS. © 2011 Adis Data Information BV. All rights reserved. Source


Svensson J.,Swedish Institute for Health Economics IHE | Borg S.,Swedish Institute for Health Economics IHE | Borg S.,Lund University | Nilsson P.,Skane University Hospital
Acta Neurologica Scandinavica | Year: 2014

Background: The resource use and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) spasticity are not well known. The purpose of this study was to obtain estimates of resource utilization, costs, and HRQoL, for patients with different levels of MS spasticity in southern Sweden. Material and methods: Cross-sectional data on spasticity severity (using a Numerical Rating Scale, NRS), resource use and HRQoL (using EQ-5D) were collected using a patient questionnaire and chart review. Patients were recruited through a clinic in southern Sweden. The study reviews direct medical, direct non-medical and indirect costs. Results: Total costs were estimated to €114,293 per patient and year. Direct medical costs (€7898) accounted for 7% of total costs. Direct non-medical costs (€68,509) accounted for 60% of total costs. Total costs increased with severity of spasticity: for patients with severe spasticity, the total cost was 2.4 times greater than those for patients with mild spasticity. HRQoL decreased as spasticity increases. Conclusion: The results of this study show that MS spasticity is associated with a substantial burden on society in terms of costs and HRQoL. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

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