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Willis M.,Swedish Institute for Health Economics | Asseburg C.,ESiOR Oy | He J.,Janssen Global Services LLC
Journal of Medical Economics

Objective: This study constructed the Economic and Health Outcomes Model for type 2 diabetes mellitus (ECHO-T2DM), a long-term stochastic microsimulation model, to predict the costs and health outcomes in patients with T2DM. Naturally, the usefulness of the model depends upon its predictive accuracy. The objective of this work is to present results of a formal validation exercise of ECHO-T2DM. Methods: The validity of ECHO-T2DM was assessed using criteria recommended by the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research/Society for Medical Decision Making (ISPOR/SMDM). Specifically, the results of a number of clinical trials were predicted and compared with observed study end-points using a scatterplot and regression approach. An F-test of the best-fitting regression was added to assess whether it differs statistically from the identity (45°) line defining perfect predictions. In addition to testing the full model using all of the validation study data, tests were also performed of microvascular, macrovascular, and survival outcomes separately. The validation tests were also performed separately by type of data (used vs not used to construct the model, economic simulations, and treatment effects). Results: The intercept and slope coefficients of the best-fitting regression line between the predicted outcomes and corresponding trial end-points in the main analysis were -0.0011 and 1.067, respectively, and the R2 was 0.95. A formal F-test of no difference between the fitted line and the identity line could not be rejected (p=0.16). The high R2 confirms that the data points are closely (and linearly) associated with the fitted regression line. Additional analyses identified that disagreement was highest for macrovascular end-points, for which the intercept and slope coefficients were 0.0095 and 1.225, respectively. The R2 was 0.95 and the estimated intercept and slope coefficients were 0.017 and 1.048, respectively, for mortality, and the F-test was narrowly rejected (p=0.04). The sub-set of microvascular end-points showed some tendency to over-predict (the slope coefficient was 1.095), although concordance between predictions and observed values could not be rejected (p=0.16). Limitations: Important study limitations include: (1) data availability limited one to tests based on end-of-study outcomes rather than time-varying outcomes during the studies analyzed; (2) complex inclusion and exclusion criteria in two studies were difficult to replicate; (3) some of the studies were older and reflect outdated treatment patterns; and (4) the authors were unable to identify published data on resource use and costs of T2DM suitable for testing the validity of the economic calculations. Conclusions: Using conventional methods, ECHO-T2DM simulated the treatment, progression, and patient outcomes observed in important clinical trials with an accuracy consistent with other well-accepted models. Macrovascular outcomes were over-predicted, which is common in health-economic models of diabetes (and may be related to a general over-prediction of event rates in the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study [UKPDS] Outcomes Model). Work is underway in ECHO-T2DM to incorporate new risk equations to improve model prediction. © 2013 All rights reserved: reproduction in whole or part not permitted. Source

Jonsen A.,Lund University | Bengtsson A.A.,Lund University | Hjalte F.,Swedish Institute for Health Economics | Petersson I.F.,Lund University | And 2 more authors.

Objective To study the annual direct and indirect costs in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and how age, disease manifestations, disease activity, and organ damage influence total costs and predicted costs for SLE. Methods Clinical data on all patients with a diagnosis of SLE living in a defined area in southern Sweden during eight years were linked to health authority registries and the social insurance system which contain data on cost. Cost data on four matched population controls for each patient were also extracted. The controls were matched for age, sex, and area of residence. Results Data from 127 patients with SLE and 508 population controls were extracted. The mean annual total cost for SLE patients was SEK 180,520 ($30,093); the highest costs were found in the subgroup with nephritis SEK 229,423 ($38,246). The total costs for the patient group were significantly higher (p < 0.05) compared to the population controls of SEK 59,985 ($10,000). Of the total costs, 72% were due to indirect costs, 3% to SLE-specific pharmaceuticals, and the remaining 25% were in- and outpatient related costs. During the study period, inpatient days decreased by 60%, while outpatient contacts increased by 25%. Age (inverse relation), increasing disease activity, and acquired organ damage were significant predictors of total costs (all p < 0.05). Conclusion The total annual costs for unselected SLE patients were found to be three times those for matched population controls. Important predictors of total costs were found. © 2015 The Author(s). Source

Norlin J.M.,Umea University | Norlin J.M.,Swedish Institute for Health Economics | Steen Carlsson K.,Swedish Institute for Health Economics | Steen Carlsson K.,Skane University Hospital | And 3 more authors.
British Journal of Dermatology

Background As moderate to severe psoriasis is a systemic disease with large effects on health-related quality of life, generic measures that include overall health, not only skin involvement, are necessary. Knowledge about the relationship between the generic preference-based EuroQol 5D (EQ-5D) and dermatology-specific measures in psoriasis is limited. Objectives To analyse EQ-5D, the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) and the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) in patients with moderate to severe psoriasis in Swedish clinical practice by demographic characteristics, to compare EQ-5D among patients vs. Swedish population values, and to analyse the relationships between EQ-5D, DLQI and PASI. Methods This observational cohort study was based on PsoReg, the Swedish National Registry for Systemic Treatment of Psoriasis. EQ-5D was compared among patients with psoriasis vs. a defined general population in Sweden, retrieved from a previous study. Relationships between measures were examined with correlation tests and regression analysis. Results In total, 2450 patients (1479 men and 971 women) were included. Median EQ-5D, DLQI and PASI scores were 0·769, 4 and 4·7, respectively. Patients with psoriasis had a significantly lower EQ-5D compared with the defined general population. EQ-5D correlated moderately with DLQI (-0·55) and weakly with PASI (-0·25) (P < 0·001). Conclusions When assessing psoriasis treatments and making decisions about treatment guidelines and resource allocation, EQ-5D, DLQI and PASI provide a useful set of complementary tools, answering to different needs. If EQ-5D is not included in the original trial the second-best option in cost-effectiveness studies is to use mapping between DLQI and EQ-5D. © 2012 The Authors. BJD © 2012 British Association of Dermatologists. Source

Persson U.,Lund University | Persson U.,Swedish Institute for Health Economics | Svensson J.,Swedish Institute for Health Economics | Pettersson B.,Sharp and Dohme MSD
Applied Health Economics and Health Policy

Sweden has experienced a national value-based pricing (VBP) system for innovative outpatient drugs operated by the Pharmaceutical Benefits Board LFN (now called the Dental and Pharmaceutical Benefits agency TLV) since 2002. VBP has the character of a monopoly system, leading to reimbursement decisions where usage of new medicines is limited to subgroups and not the population for which the drug is approved. VBP relies on a broad societal perspective, encouraging innovations by signaling to firms that value-adding treatments are demanded. However, the VBP system is operated without a drug budget responsibility. The budget responsibility lies at the regional level, not operating VBP, thus an intrinsic conflict is built into the system.The aim of this article is to suggest a modification to the current reimbursement system in Sweden where payment for pharmaceuticals is split between the regional and national levels. The system is expected to make new innovative pharmaceuticals accessible to a larger number of patients and provide more consumer surplus without reducing the producer surplus. In short, the county councils pay the marginal cost of production while the state pays for the innovation. © 2012 Springer International Publishing AG. All rights reserved. Source

Ghatnekar O.,Swedish Institute for Health Economics | Bondesson A.,County of Skane | Persson U.,Swedish Institute for Health Economics | Eriksson T.,Lund University
BMJ Open

Objective: To evaluate the cost effectiveness of a multidisciplinary team including a pharmacist for systematic medication review and reconciliation from admission to discharge at hospital among elderly patients (the Lund Integrated Medicines Management (LIMM)) in order to reduce drug-related readmissions and outpatient visits. Method: Published data from the LIMM project group were used to design a probabilistic decision tree model for evaluating tools for (1) a systematic medication reconciliation and review process at initial hospital admission and during stay (admission part) and (2) a medication report for patients discharged from hospital to primary care (discharge part). The comparator was standard care. Inpatient, outpatient and staff time costs (Euros, 2009) were calculated during a 3-month period. Dis-utilities for hospital readmissions and outpatient visits due to medication errors were taken from the literature. Results: The total cost for the LIMM model was €290 compared to €630 for standard care, in spite of a €39 intervention cost. The main cost offset arose from avoided drug-related readmissions in the Admission part (€262) whereas only €66 was offset in the Discharge part as a result of fewer outpatient visits and correction time. The reduced disutility was estimated to 0.005 quality-adjusted life-years (QALY), indicating that LIMM was a dominant alternative. The probability that the intervention would be cost-effective at a zero willingness to pay for a gained QALY compared to standard care was estimated to 98%. Conclusions: The LIMM medication reconciliation (at admission and discharge) and medication review was both cost-saving and generated greater utility compared to standard care, foremost owing to avoided drug-related hospital readmissions. When implementing such a review process with a multidisciplinary team, it may be important to consider a learning curve in order to capture the full advantage. Source

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