Svanes E.,Ostfold Research |
Aronsson A.K.S.,Swedish Institute for Food and Biotechnology
International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment | Year: 2013
Purpose: Bananas are one of the highest selling fruits worldwide, and for several countries, bananas are an important export commodity. However, very little is known about banana's contribution to global warming. The aims of this work were to study the greenhouse gas emissions of bananas from cradle to retail and cradle to grave and to assess the potential of reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions along the value chain. Methods: Carbon footprint methodology based on ISO-DIS 14067 was used to assess GHG emissions from 1 kg of bananas produced at two plantations in Costa Rica including transport by cargo ship to Norway. Several methodological issues are not clearly addressed in ISO 14067 or the LCA standards 14040 and ISO 14044 underpinning 14067. Examples are allocation, allocation in recycling, representativity and system borders. Methodological choices in this study have been made based on other standards, such as the GHG Protocol Products Standard. Results and discussion: The results indicate that bananas had a carbon footprint (CF) on the same level as other tropical fruits and that the contribution from the primary production stage was low. However, the methodology used in this study and the other comparative studies was not necessarily identical; hence, no definitive conclusions can be drawn. Overseas transport and primary production were the main contributors to the total GHG emissions. Including the consumer stage resulted in a 34 % rise in CF, mainly due to high wastage. The main potential reductions of GHG emissions were identified at the primary production, within the overseas transport stage and at the consumer. Conclusions: The carbon footprint of bananas from cradle to retail was 1.37 kg CO2 per kilogram banana. GHG emissions from transport and primary production could be significantly reduced, which could theoretically give a reduction of as much as 44 % of the total cradle-to-retail CF. The methodology was important for the end result. The choice of system boundaries gives very different results depending on which life cycle stages and which unit processes are included. Allocation issues were also important, both in recycling and in other processes such as transport and storage. The main uncertainties of the CF result are connected to N2O emissions from agriculture, methane emissions from landfills, use of secondary data and variability in the primary production data. Thus, there is a need for an internationally agreed calculation method for bananas and other food products if CFs are to be used for comparative purposes. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Craig M.,Chalmers University of Technology |
Schuster E.,Swedish Institute for Food and Biotechnology |
Holmberg K.,Chalmers University of Technology
Materials Today: Proceedings | Year: 2015
Systemic antibiotic and topical antimicrobial overexposure strongly contributes to the development of bacterial resistance. We have assembled nanofilms as a lid for drugs, which respond to the Staphylococcus aureus protease V8, while remaining intact when exposed to a human wound protease. Hollow microcapsules, loaded with a model drug and with the nanofilm as shell were assembled by template assisted assembly. With a poly-L-glutamic acid-based film, the Glu-X specific V8 caused the film to degrade, leading to release of the model drug, while the human wound protease did not affect the microcapsules. This is an example of triggered release of an active with the wound infection being the trigger. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.
Strom A.,Chalmers University of Technology |
Schuster E.,Swedish Institute for Food and Biotechnology |
Goh S.M.,Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology
Carbohydrate Polymers | Year: 2014
Pectins are traditionally divided into two groups, high methoxy and low methoxy. The groupings determine the charge of the pectin and the gelation mechanism. However, not as yet extensively studied is the impact on gelation of the distribution of the charges as characterized by an absolute degree of blockiness (DBabs). The aim of this study was to characterize rheologically the acid gelation of a pectin with a high DBabs and a degree of methyl esterification of ∼37%, in the absence and presence of monovalent ions. The results obtained suggest that a pectin with a blocky charge distribution at pH conditions close to or below the pKa exhibits weak gel-like properties at intermediate frequencies, despite the absence of a permanent network structure. The addition of monovalent ions changed the rheological behavior to resemble that of a strong gel whose properties depended on the type and concentration of the ions. © 2014 The Authors.
Flysjo A.,Arla Foods |
Flysjo A.,University of Aarhus |
Cederberg C.,Swedish Institute for Food and Biotechnology |
Henriksson M.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences |
Ledgard S.,Agresearch Ltd.
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2012
Two most critical factors to address in environmental system analysis of future milk production are 1) the link between milk and beef production, and 2) the competition for land, possibly leading to land use change (LUC) with greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and loss of biodiversity as important implications. Different methodological approaches concerning these factors, in studies on environmental impacts of dairy production, sometimes lead to contradictory results. Increasing milk yield per cow is often one of the solutions discussed in order to reduce GHG emissions from milk production. However, when also accounting for other systems affected (e.g. beef production) it is not certain that an increase in milk yield per cow leads to a reduction in total GHG emissions per kg milk. In the present study the correlation between carbon footprint (CF) of milk and the amount of milk delivered per cow is investigated for 23 dairy farms (both organic and conventional) in Sweden. Use of a fixed allocation factor of 90% (based on economic value) indicates a reduction in CF with increased milk yield, while no correlation can be noted when system expansion is applied. The average CF for two groups of farms, organic and high yielding conventional, is also calculated. When conducting system expansion the CF is somewhat lower for the organic farms (which have a lower milk yield per cow, but more meat per kg milk), but when a 90% allocation factor is used, the CF is somewhat higher for the organic farms compared to the high yielding conventional farms. In analysis of future strategies for milk production, it is suggested that system expansion should be applied, in order to also account for environmental impacts from affected systems. Thus, scenarios for milk and meat production should be analysed in an integrated approach in order to reduce total emissions from the livestock sector. How to account for emissions from LUC is highly debated and there is no current shared consensus. Different LUC methods result in significantly different results. In this study, four different LUC methods are applied, using data for organic milk production and high yielding conventional milk production systems in Sweden. Depending on which LUC method was applied, the organic system showed about 50% higher or 40% lower CF compared to the conventional high yielding system. Thus, when reporting CF numbers, it is important to report LUC-factors separately and clearly explain the underlying assumptions, since the method of accounting for LUC can drastically change the results. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Olsen N.V.,430 As |
Sijtsema S.J.,Wageningen University |
Hall G.,Swedish Institute for Food and Biotechnology
Appetite | Year: 2010
This study investigates the usefulness of integrating moral attitude into the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) model when predicting intention to consume ready-to-eat (RTE) meals. Questionnaire data were gathered in three countries: Norway (N=112), The Netherlands (N=99), and Finland (N=134) in spring 2009. A stepwise hierarchical regression was conducted, and the analyses showed that moral attitude is an important predictor of RTE-meal consumption. The feeling of moral obligation, operationalised as a negative feeling of guilt, had a negative effect on peoples' intention to consume ready meals in all the three countries tested, and the explained variance (R2) for TPB increased when moral was added as an explanatory factor. However, although the test showed significant results for the effect of attitude towards behavior and moral in all countries, non-significant results were observed for the effect of subjective norm in both The Netherlands and Norway when moral attitude was included to the TPB-model, indicating cultural differences in the social pressure towards ready meal consumption. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.