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Velicko I.,Swedish Institute for Communicable Disease Control Smittskyddsinstitutet | Unemo M.,Orebro University

Gonorrhoea incidence in Sweden continued to increase during 2007-2011, while for syphilis, there was a very minor decrease, but no clear trend. Gonorrhoea incidence increased most among heterosexually infected men and women while for syphilis, the major burden was among men who have sex with men. Neisseria gonorrhoeae resistance to first-line antimicrobials increased annually. Surveillance of infection and antimicrobial resistance along with continuous analysis are needed, to develop prevention activities to reduce risk behaviours. Source

Rosales S.,National Autonomous University of Honduras | Rosales S.,Karolinska Institutet | Rosales S.,Swedish Institute for Communicable Disease Control Smittskyddsinstitutet | Almendarez N.,Laboratorio Nacional Of Referencia Of Tuberculosis | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease

SETTING: The national TB reference laboratory and four health care units connected to the national laboratory network in Honduras, Central America. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance of the direct nitrate reductase assay (NRA) for rapid, low-cost detection of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in a resource-limited setting. DESIGN: Consecutive smear-positive samples (n = 185) were prospectively analysed with NRA and compared to the proportion method on Löwenstein Jensen medium (PM-LJ) to detect resistance to isoniazid (INH) and rifampicin (RMP). RESULTS: The NRA sensitivity, specifi city, positive and negative predictive values for INH and RMP were respectively 100%, 99%, 91%, 100% and 80%, 100%, 100%, 99%. Good agreement was observed between NRA and PM-LJ (κ > 0.8). CONCLUSION: The direct NRA is a reliable alternative for rapid and low-cost identifi cation of MDR-TB cases in resource-limited settings. © 2011 The Union. Source

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