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Plotnikov N.V.,University of Southern California | Kamerlin S.C.L.,University of Stockholm | Kamerlin S.C.L.,Stockholm Center for Biomembrane Research | Kamerlin S.C.L.,Swedish ience Research Center | Warshel A.,University of Southern California
Journal of Physical Chemistry B | Year: 2011

Recent years have seen tremendous effort in the development of approaches with which to obtain quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) free energies for reactions in the condensed phase. Nevertheless, there remain significant challenges to address, particularly, the high computational cost involved in performing proper configurational sampling and, in particular, in obtaining ab initio QM/MM (QM(ai)/MM) free-energy surfaces. One increasingly popular approach that seems to offer an ideal way to progress in this direction is the elegant metadynamics (MTD) approach. However, in the current work, we point out the subtle efficiency problems associated with this approach and illustrate that we have at hand what is arguably a more powerful approach. More specifically, we demonstrate the effectiveness of an updated version of our original idea of using a classical reference potential for QM(ai)/MM calculations [J. Phys. Chem. 1995, 99, 17516)], which we refer to as paradynamics (PD). This approach is based on the use of an empirical valence bond (EVB) reference potential, which is already similar to the real ab initio potential. The reference potential is fitted to the ab initio potential by an iterative and, to a great degree, automated refinement procedure. The corresponding free-energy profile is then constructed using the refined EVB potential, and the linear response approximation (LRA) is used to evaluate the QM(ai)/MM activation free-energy barrier. The automated refinement of the EVB surface (and thus the reduction of the difference between the reference and ab initio potentials) is a key factor in accelerating the convergence of the LRA approach. We apply our PD approach to a test reaction, namely, the SN2 reaction between a chloride ion and methyl chloride, and demonstrate that, at present, this approach is far more powerful and cost-effective than the metadynamics approach (at least in its current implementation). We also discuss the general features of the PD approach in terms of its ability to explore complex systems and clarify that it is not a specialized approach limited to only accelerating QM(ai)/MM calculations with proper sampling, but rather can be used in a wide variety of applications. In fact, we point out that the use of a reference (CG) potential coupled with its PD refinement, as well as our renormalization approach, provides very general and powerful strategies that can be used very effectively to explore any property that has been studied by the MTD approach. © 2011 American Chemical Society. Source

Schreiber F.,Stockholm Bioinformatics Center | Schreiber F.,University of Stockholm | Sonnhammer E.L.L.,Stockholm Bioinformatics Center | Sonnhammer E.L.L.,University of Stockholm | Sonnhammer E.L.L.,Swedish ience Research Center
Journal of Molecular Biology | Year: 2013

An accurate inference of orthologs is essential in many research fields such as comparative genomics, molecular evolution, and genome annotation. Existing methods for genome-scale orthology inference are mostly based on all-versus-all similarity searches that scale quadratically with the number of species. This limits their application to the increasing number of available large-scale datasets. Here, we present Hieranoid, a new orthology inference method using a hierarchical approach. Hieranoid performs pairwise orthology analysis using InParanoid at each node in a guide tree as it progresses from its leaves to the root. This concept reduces the total runtime complexity from a quadratic to a linear function of the number of species. The tree hierarchy provides a natural structure in multi-species ortholog groups, and the aggregation of multiple sequences allows for multiple alignment similarity searching techniques, which can yield more accurate ortholog groups. Using the recently published orthobench benchmark, Hieranoid showed the overall best performance. Our progressive approach presents a new way to infer orthologs that combines efficient graph-based methodology with aspects of compute-intensive tree-based methods. The linear scaling with the number of species is a major advantage for large-scale applications and makes Hieranoid well suited to cope with vast amounts of sequenced genomes in the future. Hieranoid is an open source and can be downloaded at Hieranoid.sbc.su.se. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Sjostrand J.,University of Stockholm | Sennblad B.,University of Stockholm | Sennblad B.,Karolinska Institutet | Arvestad L.,University of Stockholm | And 3 more authors.
Bioinformatics | Year: 2012

PrIME-DLRS (or colloquially: 'Delirious') is a phylogenetic software tool to simultaneously infer and reconcile a gene tree given a species tree. It accounts for duplication and loss events, a relaxed molecular clock and is intended for the study of homologous gene families, for example in a comparative genomics setting involving multiple species. PrIME-DLRS uses a Bayesian MCMC framework, where the input is a known species tree with divergence times and a multiple sequence alignment, and the output is a posterior distribution over gene trees and model parameters. © 2012 The Author. Source

Light S.,University of Stockholm | Sagit R.,University of Stockholm | Ekman D.,Karolinska Institutet | Elofsson A.,University of Stockholm | Elofsson A.,Swedish ience Research Center
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Proteins and Proteomics | Year: 2013

Proteins evolve through point mutations as well as by insertions and deletions (indels). During the last decade it has become apparent that protein regions that do not fold into three-dimensional structures, i.e. intrinsically disordered regions, are quite common. Here, we have studied the relationship between protein disorder and indels using HMM-HMM pairwise alignments in two sets of orthologous eukaryotic protein pairs. First, we show that disordered residues are much more frequent among indel residues than among aligned residues and, also are more prevalent among indels than in coils. Second, we observed that disordered residues are particularly common in longer indels. Disordered indels of short-to-medium size are prevalent in the non-terminal regions of proteins while the longest indels, ordered and disordered alike, occur toward the termini of the proteins where new structural units are comparatively well tolerated. Finally, while disordered regions often evolve faster than ordered regions and disorder is common in indels, there are some previously recognized protein families where the disordered region is more conserved than the ordered region. We find that these rare proteins are often involved in information processes, such as RNA processing and translation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: The emerging dynamic view of proteins: Protein plasticity in allostery, evolution and self-assembly. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

Kamerlin S.C.L.,University of Stockholm | Kamerlin S.C.L.,Swedish ience Research Center | Warshel A.,University of Southern California
Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics | Year: 2011

Recent years have witnessed a tremendous explosion in computational power, which in turn has resulted in great progress in the complexity of the biological and chemical problems that can be addressed by means of all-atom simulations. Despite this, however, our computational time is not infinite, and in fact many of the key problems of the field were resolved long before the existence of the current levels of computational power. This review will start by presenting a brief historical overview of the use of multiscale simulations in biology, and then present some key developments in the field, highlighting several cases where the use of a physically sound simplification is clearly superior to a brute-force approach. Finally, some potential future directions will be discussed. © the Owner Societies 2011. Source

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