Swedish Environmental Research Institute Ltd.

Göteborg, Sweden

Swedish Environmental Research Institute Ltd.

Göteborg, Sweden
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Sprovieri F.,CNR Institute of Atmospheric Pollution Research | Pirrone N.,CNR Institute of Atmospheric Pollution Research | Bencardino M.,CNR Institute of Atmospheric Pollution Research | D'Amore F.,CNR Institute of Atmospheric Pollution Research | And 36 more authors.
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics | Year: 2017

The atmospheric deposition of mercury (Hg) occurs via several mechanisms, including dry and wet scavenging by precipitation events. In an effort to understand the atmospheric cycling and seasonal depositional characteristics of Hg, wet deposition samples were collected for approximately 5 years at 17 selected GMOS monitoring sites located in the Northern and Southern hemispheres in the framework of the Global Mercury Observation System (GMOS) project. Total mercury (THg) exhibited annual and seasonal patterns in Hg wet deposition samples. Interannual differences in total wet deposition are mostly linked with precipitation volume, with the greatest deposition flux occurring in the wettest years. This data set provides a new insight into baseline concentrations of THg concentrations in precipitation worldwide, particularly in regions such as the Southern Hemisphere and tropical areas where wet deposition as well as atmospheric Hg species were not investigated before, opening the way for future and additional simultaneous measurements across the GMOS network as well as new findings in future modeling studies. © 2017 Author(s). CC Attribution 3.0 License.

De Simone F.,CNR Institute of Atmospheric Pollution Research | Artaxo P.,University of Sao Paulo | Bencardino M.,CNR Institute of Atmospheric Pollution Research | Cinnirella S.,CNR Institute of Atmospheric Pollution Research | And 11 more authors.
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics | Year: 2017

Mercury (Hg) emissions from biomass burning (BB) are an important source of atmospheric Hg and a major factor driving the interannual variation of Hg concentrations in the troposphere. The greatest fraction of Hg from BB is released in the form of elemental Hg (Hg(g) 0). However, little is known about the fraction of Hg bound to particulate matter (HgP) released from BB, and the factors controlling this fraction are also uncertain. In light of the aims of the Minamata Convention to reduce intentional Hg use and emissions from anthropogenic activities, the relative importance of Hg emissions from BB will have an increasing impact on Hg deposition fluxes. Hg speciation is one of the most important factors determining the redistribution of Hg in the atmosphere and the geographical distribution of Hg deposition. Using the latest version of the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFEDv4.1s) and the global Hg chemistry transport model, ECHMERIT, the impact of Hg speciation in BB emissions, and the factors which influence speciation, on Hg deposition have been investigated for the year 2013. The role of other uncertainties related to physical and chemical atmospheric processes involving Hg and the influence of model parametrisations were also investigated, since their interactions with Hg speciation are complex. The comparison with atmospheric HgP concentrations observed at two remote sites, Amsterdam Island (AMD) and Manaus (MAN), in the Amazon showed a significant improvement when considering a fraction of HgP from BB. The set of sensitivity runs also showed how the quantity and geographical distribution of HgP emitted from BB has a limited impact on a global scale, although the inclusion of increasing fractions HgP does limit Hg(g) 0 availability to the global atmospheric pool. This reduces the fraction of Hg from BB which deposits to the world's oceans from 71 to 62 %. The impact locally is, however, significant on northern boreal and tropical forests, where fires are frequent, uncontrolled and lead to notable Hg inputs to local ecosystems. In the light of ongoing climatic changes this effect could be potentially be exacerbated in the future. © Author(s) 2017.

Sprovieri F.,CNR Institute of Atmospheric Pollution Research | Pirrone N.,CNR Institute of Atmospheric Pollution Research | Bencardino M.,CNR Institute of Atmospheric Pollution Research | D'Amore F.,CNR Institute of Atmospheric Pollution Research | And 42 more authors.
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics | Year: 2016

Long-term monitoring of data of ambient mercury (Hg) on a global scale to assess its emission, transport, atmospheric chemistry, and deposition processes is vital to understanding the impact of Hg pollution on the environment. The Global Mercury Observation System (GMOS) project was funded by the European Commission (http://www.gmos.eu) and started in November 2010 with the overall goal to develop a coordinated global observing system to monitor Hg on a global scale, including a large network of ground-based monitoring stations, ad hoc periodic oceanographic cruises and measurement flights in the lower and upper troposphere as well as in the lower stratosphere. To date, more than 40 ground-based monitoring sites constitute the global network covering many regions where little to no observational data were available before GMOS. This work presents atmospheric Hg concentrations recorded worldwide in the framework of the GMOS project (2010-2015), analyzing Hg measurement results in terms of temporal trends, seasonality and comparability within the network. Major findings highlighted in this paper include a clear gradient of Hg concentrations between the Northern and Southern hemispheres, confirming that the gradient observed is mostly driven by local and regional sources, which can be anthropogenic, natural or a combination of both. © 2016 Author(s).

Hellsten S.,Swedish Environmental Research Institute Ltd. | Helmisaari H.-S.,University of Helsinki | Melin Y.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Skovsgaard J.P.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | And 5 more authors.
Forest Ecology and Management | Year: 2013

The objective of this study was to evaluate the concentrations of nutrients in stumps and coarse roots in Norway spruce, Scots pine and silver birch in Sweden, Finland and Denmark, and to assess how nutrient concentrations vary with site characteristics, stand age and root size. Concentrations of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and sodium (Na) in spruce, pine and birch stumps were assessed in eight sites across Scandinavia. Nutrient concentrations were higher in birch than in spruce and pine. In Sweden and Finland, the nutrient concentrations were generally higher at the southern sites than at the sites located in the northern part of the countries, except for P. For all nutrients, concentrations were significantly higher in the bark of the stump and roots than in the wood. Furthermore, nutrient concentrations increased significantly with decreasing root diameter. This study did not demonstrate any correlations with stand age. Further studies are needed to provide a broader picture of how the stump nutrient contents vary with site characteristics and forest management practices to provide a better foundation for nutrient balance calculations when setting up recommendations for stump removal. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Li J.,Southwest University | Li J.,Chongqing Water Resources and Electrical Engineering College | Sommar J.,Gothenburg University | Fang Z.,Southwest University | And 4 more authors.
Disaster Advances | Year: 2010

Total gaseous mercury (TGM) was carried out at six residential areas in Göteborg, Sweden by using Tekran 2537A Mercury Vapor Analyzer. TGM concentration in residential areas (2.89±1.44 ng m ) was 1.8 times than this in Rörvik (1.63±0.19 ng m-3) which clearly revealed the enhancement of anthropogenic source processes in residential areas. TGM concentration clearly indicated the pattern for an enhanced Hg concentration during nighttime relative to daytime in urban, while reverse diurnal pattern was observed in suburb, and rural area lagged behind the suburb. The elevated TGM in urban with lower wind was suggestive of a factor describing photochemistry in combination with local mobile sources. For suburb, the increased TGM was closely tied with the influence of coal combustion which came predominantly from the EES wind sector. As for rural, increased TGM may likely be the synthetic effects originated from suburb, urban and higher industrialized regions.

Paulrud S.,Swedish Environmental Research Institute Ltd | Paulrud S.,SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden | Laitila T.,Örebro University
Biomass and Bioenergy | Year: 2010

The present study adapts the choice experiment (CE) method for an analysis of how Swedish farmers assess the relative value of the characteristics associated with growing energy crops. An additional goal was to find out the willingness of farmers to grow energy crops relative to different levels of income and subsidies based on predictions of acreage of energy crop cultivation. In the first CE, farmers were presented with two energy crops and six of their characteristics and asked to choose the alternative he or she preferred most. In the second CE the respondent was asked how many hectares for each crop he/she would be willing to grow on arable land with an energy crop subsidy and how many hectares he/she would be willing to grow on set-aside land without an energy crop subsidy. The results suggest that among the included characteristics in the first experiment, the visual impact on the landscape and the rotation period of the energy crop appear to have a significant impact on the utility derived from growing an energy crop. An increased utility of a crop increases the arable land used for that crop and the income associated with it. Farm characteristics such as leased land, rented land, share of set-aside land, and type of farming had an insignificant effect on the willingness to grow energy crops. Significant characteristics were age of the farmer, size of the farm, and the geographical area. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Pleijel H.,Gothenburg University | Danielsson H.,Swedish Environmental Research Institute Inc. | Simpson D.,Norwegian Meteorological Institute | Simpson D.,Chalmers University of Technology | Mills G.,UK Center for Ecology and Hydrology
Biogeosciences | Year: 2014

Elevated levels of tropospheric ozone can significantly impair the growth of crops. The reduced removal of CO2by plants leads to higher atmospheric concentrations of CO2, enhancing radiative forcing. Ozone effects on economic yield, e.g. the grain yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), are currently used to model effects on radiative forcing. However, changes in grain yield do not necessarily reflect changes in total biomass. Based on an analysis of 22 ozone exposure experiments with field-grown wheat, we investigated whether the use of effects on grain yield as a proxy for effects on biomass under- or overestimates effects on biomass. First, we confirmed that effects on partitioning and biomass loss are both of significant importance for wheat yield loss. Then we derived ozone dose response functions for biomass loss and for harvest index (the proportion of above-ground biomass converted to grain) based on 12 experiments and recently developed ozone uptake modelling for wheat. Finally, we used a European-scale chemical transport model (EMEP MSC-West) to assess the effect of ozone on biomass (-9%) and grain yield (-14%) loss over Europe. Based on yield data per grid square, we estimated above-ground biomass losses due to ozone in 2000 in Europe, totalling 22.2 million tonnes. Incorrectly applying the grain yield response function to model effects on biomass instead of the biomass response function of this paper would have indicated total above-ground biomass losses totalling 38.1 million (i.e. overestimating effects by 15.9 million tonnes). A key conclusion from our study is that future assessments of ozone-induced loss of agroecosystem carbon storage should use response functions for biomass, such as that provided in this paper, not grain yield, to avoid overestimation of the indirect radiative forcing from ozone effects on crop biomass accumulation. © 2014 Author(s).

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