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Östermalm, Sweden

Larsen L.B.,University of Aarhus | Wedholm-Pallas A.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Lindmark-Mansson H.,Swedish Dairy Association | Andren A.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
Dairy Science and Technology | Year: 2010

Proteomic profiles of sweet whey and rennet casein fractions prepared from raw or pasteurised (72 °C for 15 s), skimmed milk were studied by proteomics coupled with the detection of protein spots by MALDI TOF mass spectrometry. Proteins were analysed by a modification of the traditional, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DGE) method under non-reducing running conditions, which potentially permits the visualisation of disulphide-linked protein complexes formed in response to pasteurisation. Separated proteins were stained with Coomassie blue. The relative spot volumes obtained after 2-DGE of fractions from raw or pasteurised milk were compared. A number of different spots in the rennet casein and sweet whey fractions were found to vary in response to pasteurisation. Some of these represented higher molecular mass complexes that increased in the chymosin-precipitated casein fraction, and they were identified by mass spectrometry to contain αS1-casein. Certain fragments of αS1-casein, probably generated as a result of chymosin cleavage, increased in the whey after pasteurisation. The whey content of proteose peptone component 3 (PP3) or lactophorin decreased after pasteurisation, which could indicate increased association of PP3 with for example the milk fat globule membrane after pasteurisation. This shows that gel-based proteome analysis can be used in the characterisation of subtle variations in protein composition of milk fractions that occur as a consequence of pasteurisation. © INRA, EDP Sciences, 2010. Source

Freiburghaus C.,Lund University | Lindmark-Mansson H.,Swedish Dairy Association | Paulsson M.,Lund University | Oredsson S.,Lund University
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2012

Treatment of Caco-2 cells with the peptide lactoferricin4-14, results in reduction of the growth rate by prolongation of the S phase of the cell cycle. Lactoferricin1-25 is formed in the gut by cleavage from lactoferrin and the bioactive amino acids are found within lactoferricin4-14. Our hypothesis is that the reduction of the rate of S phase progression may result in increased DNA repair. To test this hypothesis, Caco-2 cells were subjected to UV light that caused DNA lesions and then the cells were grown in the absence or presence of 2.0μM lactoferricin4-14. Evaluation of DNA strand breaks using the comet assay showed that lactoferricin4-14 treatment indeed resulted in a reduction of comets showing damaged DNA. In the search for a mechanism, we have investigated the levels of several proteins involved in cell cycle regulation, DNA replication, and apoptosis using Western blot. Lactoferricin4-14 treatment resulted in an increased expression of flap endonuclease-1 pointing to increased DNA synthesis activity. Lactoferricin4-14 treatment decreased the expression of the proapoptotic protein B-cell lymphoma 2-associated X protein (or Bax), indicating decreased cell death. As we have found previously, lactoferricin4-14 treatment reduced the expression of cyclin E involved in the G1/S transition. Immunofluorescence microscopy showed that a lower γ-H2AX expression in lactoferricin4-14-treated cells, pointing to more efficient DNA repair. Thus, altogether our data show that lactoferricin4-14 treatment has beneficial effects. © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Source

Torsein M.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Lindberg A.,National Veterinary Institute | Sandgren C.H.,Swedish Dairy Association | Waller K.P.,National Veterinary Institute | And 3 more authors.
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2011

The aim of this study was to identify possible risk factors for 1-90 day calf mortality in large Swedish dairy herds. Sixty herds with a herd size of ≥160 cows were visited once between December 2005 and March 2006. Thirty herds were known to have low mortality (LM) and 30 were known high mortality herds (HM). Upon the visit, data about housing and management was collected from interviews with personnel responsible for the calves. The herd status regarding the calves' passive transfer (total protein), levels of α-tocopherol, β-carotene and retinol, and excretion of faecal pathogens (Cryptosporidium spp., Escherichia coli F5, rota and corona virus) was evaluated based on targeted sampling of high risk calf groups; in each herd, blood and faecal samples were collected from calves 1-7 and 1-14 days old, respectively. Similarly, the herd status regarding clinical respiratory disease in calves and history of respiratory virus exposure was evaluated based on lung auscultations and blood samplings of calves 60-90 days old. The median calf mortality risk (in calves 1-90 days of age) among HM herds was 9% (Range: 6-24%) and among LM herds 1% (Range: 0-2%). LM and HM herds were compared using five logistic regression models, covering potential risk factors within different areas: "Disease susceptibility", "Factors affecting the gastrointestinal tract", "Factors related to transmission of infectious disease", "Hygiene" and "Labour management" The percentage of calves, 1-7 days old, with inadequate serum concentrations of α-tocopherol and β-carotene were significantly higher in HM herds compared to LM herds and also associated with higher odds of being a HM herd (OR. = 1.02; p = 0.023 and OR. = 1.05; p = 0.0028, respectively). The variable "Average number of faecal pathogens in the sampled target group" was significantly associated with higher odds of being a HM herd (OR. = 4.65; p = 0.015), with a higher average in HM herds. The percentage of calves with diarrhoea treated with antibiotics was significantly higher in HM herds and was associated with higher odds of being a HM herd (OR. = 1.08; p = 0.021). The median age at death of calves in the age interval 1-90 days that died during a one-year period was significantly lower among HM herds (13 days) than in LM herds (24 days) (p = 0.0013) The results indicate that gastrointestinal disorders may be an important cause of calf mortality in large Swedish dairy herds. Furthermore, our study provides additional indications that fat soluble vitamins might play an important role for calf health. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source

Hultgren J.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Svensson C.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Pehrsson M.,Swedish Dairy Association
Livestock Science | Year: 2011

Associations between replacement heifer rearing conditions and lifetime milk revenues were studied throughout the productive life of Swedish dairy cows. Data were collected from 2127 cows, mainly Swedish Reds and Swedish Holsteins, representing all female animals born during 1998 in 110 herds and followed until May 2006. Lifetime net milk revenues were calculated for each cow based on the length of productive life, lifetime milk production, a fixed milk price of 0.3 €/kg ECM, and estimated costs for heifer rearing and cow feed. Median observed productive lifetime to culling, death, selling off or terminated recording was 26.9. mo. Mean lifetime production was 9209. kg ECM/cow-yr, calculated from monthly test-day yields. Rearing costs (median 631 €) were estimated using a template developed for Swedish advisory services, including costs related to purchase, feeding, labour, building investment, building maintenance and breeding. Net milk revenues had a median of 1169 €/cow-yr during productive life and were heavily skewed. Diarrhea and respiratory disease before 7. mo of age had occurred in 11 and 11% of the cows, respectively, the majority cases being mild. The mean prepubertal growth rate was 670. g/day. Cow net revenue values were transformed to achieve normality and analysed by a linear mixed model including fixed effects of breed, calf housing system from 3 to 7. mo of age, body condition score at 1st breeding, year of 1st calving, age at 1st calving, cow housing system, mean milk cell count, the interaction between calf housing and breed, the interaction between cow housing and breed, and the random effect of herd. The model predicted net revenues to decrease with age at 1st calving and with body condition score at breeding over 4. Our results show that replacement rearing factors influence net milk revenues of a dairy operation and suggest that current recommendations to breed dairy heifers for calving at 24. mo are economically justified. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source

Ohlsson L.,Lund University | Hertervig E.,Lund University | Jonsson B.A.G.,Lund University | Duan R.-D.,Lund University | And 3 more authors.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2010

Background: Sphingomyelin occurs in modest amounts in the diet, in sloughed mucosal cells, and in bile. It is digested by the mucosal enzymes alkaline sphingomyelinase and ceramidase. In humans, alkaline sphingomyelinase is also secreted in bile. The digestion of sphingomyelin is slow and incomplete, which has been linked to the inhibition of cholesterol absorption and colonic carcinogenesis. Objective: We evaluated whether the supply of moderate amounts of milk sphingomyelin increases the exposure of the colon to sphingomyelin and its metabolites. Design: Two experimental series were performed. In experiment A, we measured the content of sphingomyelin and ceramide in human ileostomy content by HPLC during 8 h after consumption of a test meal containing 250 mg milk sphingomyelin. In experiment B, we measured the molecular species of sphingomyelin and ceramide by HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry after doses of 50, 100, or 200 mg sphingomyelin. Results: In experiment A, the average increase in ileostomy content of ceramide plus sphingomyelin amounted to 19% of the fed dose of sphingomyelin. In experiment B, the output of C-22:0-sphingomyelin, C-23:0-sphingomyelin, C-24:0-sphingomyelin, and sphingosine increased significantly, and palmitoyl-sphingomyelin increased proportionally less. Outputs and concentrations of palmitoyl-ceramide and sphingosine showed great individual variation, and stearoyl-sphingomyelin and stearoyl-ceramide did not increase after the meals. Although the output of long-chain sphingomyelin species increased significantly, the data indicated that >81% of all measured sphingomyelin species had been digested. Conclusions: Humans digest and absorb most of the sphingomyelin in normal diets. The amount of sphingolipid metabolites to which the colon is exposed can, however, be influenced by realistic amounts of dietary sphingomyelin. © 2010 American Society for Nutrition. Source

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