Stockholm, Sweden
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Larsen L.B.,University of Aarhus | Wedholm-Pallas A.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Lindmark-Mansson H.,Swedish Dairy Association | Andren A.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
Dairy Science and Technology | Year: 2010

Proteomic profiles of sweet whey and rennet casein fractions prepared from raw or pasteurised (72 °C for 15 s), skimmed milk were studied by proteomics coupled with the detection of protein spots by MALDI TOF mass spectrometry. Proteins were analysed by a modification of the traditional, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DGE) method under non-reducing running conditions, which potentially permits the visualisation of disulphide-linked protein complexes formed in response to pasteurisation. Separated proteins were stained with Coomassie blue. The relative spot volumes obtained after 2-DGE of fractions from raw or pasteurised milk were compared. A number of different spots in the rennet casein and sweet whey fractions were found to vary in response to pasteurisation. Some of these represented higher molecular mass complexes that increased in the chymosin-precipitated casein fraction, and they were identified by mass spectrometry to contain αS1-casein. Certain fragments of αS1-casein, probably generated as a result of chymosin cleavage, increased in the whey after pasteurisation. The whey content of proteose peptone component 3 (PP3) or lactophorin decreased after pasteurisation, which could indicate increased association of PP3 with for example the milk fat globule membrane after pasteurisation. This shows that gel-based proteome analysis can be used in the characterisation of subtle variations in protein composition of milk fractions that occur as a consequence of pasteurisation. © INRA, EDP Sciences, 2010.


Larsen M.K.,University of Aarhus | Nielsen J.H.,University of Aarhus | Butler G.,Newcastle University | Leifert C.,Newcastle University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2010

To investigate the influence of climatic conditions and season on milk composition, bulk tank milk was sampled on 5 occasions during a period of 15 mo from 20 Swedish dairy farms. These farms included 5 organic and 5 conventional farms in central Sweden and 7 traditional conventional farms and 3 conventional farms growing maize for silage in southern Sweden. Feed data and milk yield were recorded and milk was analyzed for content of fatty acids, carotenoids, and tocopherol. Differences between milk from the 2 regions and between summer and winter seasons were shown. Milk from central Sweden differed from milk from southern Sweden in that it had a higher content of carotenoids, tocopherol, short-chain fatty acids (C4-C14), C18:0, and C18:3 n-3 and a lower content of C16. Summer milk samples had a lower fat content and contained higher amounts of C18:1 cis-9 and conjugated linoleic acid cis-9,. trans-11, and lower amounts of C4 to C16 compared with winter milk. Differences between farm types from central Sweden were lower content of conjugated linoleic acid cis-9,. trans-11 and higher content of C18:3 n-3 in organic milk compared with conventional milk. In southern Sweden the use of maize silage caused lower milk content of carotenoids and C18:3 n-3 when compared with traditional feeding. Differences in milk composition could be related to climatic differences because legumes are more dominating in the leys of central Sweden and maize growing is limited to southern Sweden. © 2010 American Dairy Science Association.


Shaheen R.,University of Helsinki | Svensson B.,Tetra Pak | Andersson M.A.,University of Helsinki | Christiansson A.,Swedish Dairy Association | Salkinoja-Salonen M.,University of Helsinki
Food Microbiology | Year: 2010

Survival of Bacillus cereus spores of dairy silo tank origin was investigated under conditions simulating those in operational dairy silos. Twenty-three strains were selected to represent all B. cereus isolates (n = 457) with genotypes (RAPD-PCR) that frequently colonised the silo tanks of at least two of the sampled eight dairies. The spores were studied for survival when immersed in liquids used for cleaning-in-place (1.0% sodium hydroxide at pH 13.1, 75 °C; 0.9% nitric acid at pH 0.8, 65 °C), for adhesion onto nonliving surfaces at 4 °C and for germination and biofilm formation in milk. Four groups with different strategies for survival were identified. First, high survival (log 15 min kill ≤1.5) in the hot-alkaline wash liquid. Second, efficient adherence of the spores to stainless steel from cold water. Third, a cereulide producing group with spores characterised by slow germination in rich medium and well preserved viability when exposed to heating at 90 °C. Fourth, spores capable of germinating at 8 °C and possessing the cspA gene. There were indications that spores highly resistant to hot 1% sodium hydroxide may be effectively inactivated by hot 0.9% nitric acid. Eight out of the 14 dairy silo tank isolates possessing hot-alkali resistant spores were capable of germinating and forming biofilm in whole milk, not previously reported for B. cereus. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Glantz M.,Lund University | Devold T.G.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Vegarud G.E.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Lindmark Mansson H.,Swedish Dairy Association | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2010

The economic output of the dairy industry is to a great extent dependent on the processing of milk into other milk-based products such as cheese. The yield and quality of cheese are dependent on both the composition and technological properties of milk. The objective of this study was to evaluate the importance and effects of casein (CN) micelle size and milk composition on milk gelation characteristics in order to evaluate the possibilities for enhancing gelation properties through breeding. Milk was collected on 4 sampling occasions at the farm level in winter and summer from dairy cows with high genetic merit, classified as elite dairy cows, of the Swedish Red and Swedish Holstein breeds. Comparisons were made with milk from a Swedish Red herd, a Swedish Holstein herd, and a Swedish dairy processor. Properties of CN micelles, such as their native and rennet-induced CN micelle size and their ζ-potential, were analyzed by photon correlation spectroscopy, and rennet-induced gelation characteristics, including gel strength, gelation time, and frequency sweeps, were determined. Milk parameters of the protein, lipid, and carbohydrate profiles as well as minerals were used to obtain correlations with native CN micelle size and gelation characteristics. Milk pH and protein, CN, and lactose contents were found to affect milk gelation. Smaller native CN micelles were shown to form stronger gels when poorly coagulating milk was excluded from the correlation analysis. In addition, milk pH correlated positively, whereas Mg and K correlated negatively with native CN micellar size. The milk from the elite dairy cows was shown to have good gelation characteristics. Furthermore, genetic progress in relation to CN micelle size was found for these cows as a correlated response to selection for the Swedish breeding objective if optimizing for milk gelation characteristics. The results indicate that selection for smaller native CN micelles and lower milk pH through breeding would enhance gelation properties and may thus improve the initial step in the processing of cheese. © 2010 American Dairy Science Association.


Torsein M.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Torsein M.,Swedish Animal Health Service | Lindberg A.,National Veterinary Institute | Sandgren C.H.,Swedish Dairy Association | And 4 more authors.
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2011

The aim of this study was to identify possible risk factors for 1-90 day calf mortality in large Swedish dairy herds. Sixty herds with a herd size of ≥160 cows were visited once between December 2005 and March 2006. Thirty herds were known to have low mortality (LM) and 30 were known high mortality herds (HM). Upon the visit, data about housing and management was collected from interviews with personnel responsible for the calves. The herd status regarding the calves' passive transfer (total protein), levels of α-tocopherol, β-carotene and retinol, and excretion of faecal pathogens (Cryptosporidium spp., Escherichia coli F5, rota and corona virus) was evaluated based on targeted sampling of high risk calf groups; in each herd, blood and faecal samples were collected from calves 1-7 and 1-14 days old, respectively. Similarly, the herd status regarding clinical respiratory disease in calves and history of respiratory virus exposure was evaluated based on lung auscultations and blood samplings of calves 60-90 days old. The median calf mortality risk (in calves 1-90 days of age) among HM herds was 9% (Range: 6-24%) and among LM herds 1% (Range: 0-2%). LM and HM herds were compared using five logistic regression models, covering potential risk factors within different areas: "Disease susceptibility", "Factors affecting the gastrointestinal tract", "Factors related to transmission of infectious disease", "Hygiene" and "Labour management" The percentage of calves, 1-7 days old, with inadequate serum concentrations of α-tocopherol and β-carotene were significantly higher in HM herds compared to LM herds and also associated with higher odds of being a HM herd (OR. = 1.02; p = 0.023 and OR. = 1.05; p = 0.0028, respectively). The variable "Average number of faecal pathogens in the sampled target group" was significantly associated with higher odds of being a HM herd (OR. = 4.65; p = 0.015), with a higher average in HM herds. The percentage of calves with diarrhoea treated with antibiotics was significantly higher in HM herds and was associated with higher odds of being a HM herd (OR. = 1.08; p = 0.021). The median age at death of calves in the age interval 1-90 days that died during a one-year period was significantly lower among HM herds (13 days) than in LM herds (24 days) (p = 0.0013) The results indicate that gastrointestinal disorders may be an important cause of calf mortality in large Swedish dairy herds. Furthermore, our study provides additional indications that fat soluble vitamins might play an important role for calf health. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Hultgren J.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Svensson C.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Pehrsson M.,Swedish Dairy Association
Livestock Science | Year: 2011

Associations between replacement heifer rearing conditions and lifetime milk revenues were studied throughout the productive life of Swedish dairy cows. Data were collected from 2127 cows, mainly Swedish Reds and Swedish Holsteins, representing all female animals born during 1998 in 110 herds and followed until May 2006. Lifetime net milk revenues were calculated for each cow based on the length of productive life, lifetime milk production, a fixed milk price of 0.3 €/kg ECM, and estimated costs for heifer rearing and cow feed. Median observed productive lifetime to culling, death, selling off or terminated recording was 26.9. mo. Mean lifetime production was 9209. kg ECM/cow-yr, calculated from monthly test-day yields. Rearing costs (median 631 €) were estimated using a template developed for Swedish advisory services, including costs related to purchase, feeding, labour, building investment, building maintenance and breeding. Net milk revenues had a median of 1169 €/cow-yr during productive life and were heavily skewed. Diarrhea and respiratory disease before 7. mo of age had occurred in 11 and 11% of the cows, respectively, the majority cases being mild. The mean prepubertal growth rate was 670. g/day. Cow net revenue values were transformed to achieve normality and analysed by a linear mixed model including fixed effects of breed, calf housing system from 3 to 7. mo of age, body condition score at 1st breeding, year of 1st calving, age at 1st calving, cow housing system, mean milk cell count, the interaction between calf housing and breed, the interaction between cow housing and breed, and the random effect of herd. The model predicted net revenues to decrease with age at 1st calving and with body condition score at breeding over 4. Our results show that replacement rearing factors influence net milk revenues of a dairy operation and suggest that current recommendations to breed dairy heifers for calving at 24. mo are economically justified. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Forsback L.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Lindmark-Mansson H.,Swedish Dairy Association | Andren A.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Akerstedt M.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2010

Automatic in-line measurement of milk composition and milk yield could be a useful tool in management of the dairy herd. Data on milk components and milk yield provide information on milk quality alterations and cow health status but are also useful in planning feeding and breeding. In automatic milking systems, udder quarters are milked individually, enabling analysis and recording at the udder-quarter level. Frequent records of components require knowledge about day-to-day variations. A component with greater day-to-day variation needs more frequent sampling when used as a diagnostic tool and for management decisions. Earlier studies have described the day-to-day variations in milk components for cow composite milk, but with the quarter milking technique and the possible sampling at the udder-quarter level, knowledge about day-to-day variations at the udder-quarter level is needed. In this study, udder-quarter and cow composite milk samples were collected from 42 consecutive milkings of 10 cows during 21 d. Milk yield was recorded and the milk was analyzed for total protein, whey protein, casein, fat, lactose, and somatic cell count. The results showed that the day-to-day variations and mean values for 4 healthy udder quarters within a cow were similar. In addition, different milk components had different levels of day-to-day variation, the least variation being found in lactose (0.9%) and the greatest in fat (7.7%). This suggests that repeated milk sampling and analysis at the udder-quarter level can be used to detect alterations in composition and cow health and would, thus, be helpful in the management of the dairy herd. © 2010 American Dairy Science Association.


Forsback L.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Lindmark-Mansson H.,Swedish Dairy Association | Andren A.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Svennersten-Sjaunja K.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
Animal | Year: 2010

Much emphasis has been put on evaluating alterations in milk composition caused by clinical and subclinical mastitis. However, little is known about changes in milk composition during subclinical mastitis in individual udder quarters with a low-to-moderate increase in milk somatic cell count (SCC). This information is needed to decide whether milk from individual udder quarters with a moderate-to-high increase in milk SCC should be separated or not. The aim of this study was to determine how milk composition in separate udder quarters is affected when cow composite milk has low or moderately increased SCC levels. Udder quarter and cow composite milk samples were collected from 17 cows on one occasion. Milk yield was registered and samples were analyzed for SCC, fat, total protein, whey proteins, lactose, citric acid, non-protein nitrogen (NPN), lactoferrin, protein profile, free fatty acids (FFAs), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), proteolysis, sodium and potassium. Bacteriological samples were collected twice from all four quarters of all cows. The cows were divided into three groups depending on their SCC at udder quarter level. The first group comprised healthy cows with four udder quarters with low SCC, <50 000 cells/ml; composition was equal when opposite rear and front quarters were compared. In the second and the third groups, cows had one udder quarter with 101 000 cells/ml < SCC < 600 000 cells/ml and SCC > 700 000 cells/ml, respectively. The remaining udder quarters of these cows had low SCC (<100 000 cells/ml). Despite the relatively low average cow composite SCC = 100 000 cells/ml of Group 2, milk from affected udder quarters exhibited lower casein number, content of lactose and -casein (-CN), while the content of whey protein, sodium, LDH and -lactoalbumin (-la) were higher compared to healthy opposite quarters. In addition to these changes, milk from affected udder quarters in Group 3 also exhibited lower values of potassium and s1-casein (s1-CN) and higher values of lactoferrin when compared to milk from opposite healthy quarters. This indicates that even when the SCC in cow composite milk is low, there might exist individual quarters for which milk composition is changed and milk quality impaired. © 2009 The Animal Consortium.


Ohlsson L.,Lund University | Hertervig E.,Lund University | Jonsson B.A.G.,Lund University | Duan R.-D.,Lund University | And 3 more authors.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2010

Background: Sphingomyelin occurs in modest amounts in the diet, in sloughed mucosal cells, and in bile. It is digested by the mucosal enzymes alkaline sphingomyelinase and ceramidase. In humans, alkaline sphingomyelinase is also secreted in bile. The digestion of sphingomyelin is slow and incomplete, which has been linked to the inhibition of cholesterol absorption and colonic carcinogenesis. Objective: We evaluated whether the supply of moderate amounts of milk sphingomyelin increases the exposure of the colon to sphingomyelin and its metabolites. Design: Two experimental series were performed. In experiment A, we measured the content of sphingomyelin and ceramide in human ileostomy content by HPLC during 8 h after consumption of a test meal containing 250 mg milk sphingomyelin. In experiment B, we measured the molecular species of sphingomyelin and ceramide by HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry after doses of 50, 100, or 200 mg sphingomyelin. Results: In experiment A, the average increase in ileostomy content of ceramide plus sphingomyelin amounted to 19% of the fed dose of sphingomyelin. In experiment B, the output of C-22:0-sphingomyelin, C-23:0-sphingomyelin, C-24:0-sphingomyelin, and sphingosine increased significantly, and palmitoyl-sphingomyelin increased proportionally less. Outputs and concentrations of palmitoyl-ceramide and sphingosine showed great individual variation, and stearoyl-sphingomyelin and stearoyl-ceramide did not increase after the meals. Although the output of long-chain sphingomyelin species increased significantly, the data indicated that >81% of all measured sphingomyelin species had been digested. Conclusions: Humans digest and absorb most of the sphingomyelin in normal diets. The amount of sphingolipid metabolites to which the colon is exposed can, however, be influenced by realistic amounts of dietary sphingomyelin. © 2010 American Society for Nutrition.


Freiburghaus C.,Lund University | Lindmark-Mansson H.,Swedish Dairy Association | Paulsson M.,Lund University | Oredsson S.,Lund University
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2012

Treatment of Caco-2 cells with the peptide lactoferricin4-14, results in reduction of the growth rate by prolongation of the S phase of the cell cycle. Lactoferricin1-25 is formed in the gut by cleavage from lactoferrin and the bioactive amino acids are found within lactoferricin4-14. Our hypothesis is that the reduction of the rate of S phase progression may result in increased DNA repair. To test this hypothesis, Caco-2 cells were subjected to UV light that caused DNA lesions and then the cells were grown in the absence or presence of 2.0μM lactoferricin4-14. Evaluation of DNA strand breaks using the comet assay showed that lactoferricin4-14 treatment indeed resulted in a reduction of comets showing damaged DNA. In the search for a mechanism, we have investigated the levels of several proteins involved in cell cycle regulation, DNA replication, and apoptosis using Western blot. Lactoferricin4-14 treatment resulted in an increased expression of flap endonuclease-1 pointing to increased DNA synthesis activity. Lactoferricin4-14 treatment decreased the expression of the proapoptotic protein B-cell lymphoma 2-associated X protein (or Bax), indicating decreased cell death. As we have found previously, lactoferricin4-14 treatment reduced the expression of cyclin E involved in the G1/S transition. Immunofluorescence microscopy showed that a lower γ-H2AX expression in lactoferricin4-14-treated cells, pointing to more efficient DNA repair. Thus, altogether our data show that lactoferricin4-14 treatment has beneficial effects. © 2012 American Dairy Science Association.

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