CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute

Borås, Sweden

CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute

Borås, Sweden

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Williams Portal N.,CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute | Williams Portal N.,Chalmers University of Technology | Nyholm Thrane L.,Danish Technological Institute DTI | Lundgren K.,Chalmers University of Technology
Materials and Structures/Materiaux et Constructions | Year: 2017

Textile reinforced concrete (TRC) is an innovative high performance composite material which has revealed many promising attributes in various applications but test methods and reliable numerical models need to be established to reduce uncertainty and the need for extensive experimental studies. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the flexural behaviour of carbon textile reinforced TRC slabs both experimentally and numerically along with the characterization of the material and interaction level properties. The experimental results characterizing the bond behaviour were linked to the experimental behaviour of a rectangular TRC slab in bending through numerical analyses. A 2D macro-scale FE-model of the tested TRC slab was developed based on the related experimental input. Comparison of the numerical results to the experiments revealed that the flexural failure was governed by bond, and reasonable agreement was obtained in terms of crack development, deflections, maximum load, and failure mode. Accordingly, the experiments further indicated that the flexural behaviour of TRC slabs is greatly influenced by the bond quality. © 2016, RILEM.


Zandi K.,Chalmers University of Technology | Zandi K.,CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute | Lundgren K.,Chalmers University of Technology
Concrete - Innovation and Design: fib Symposium Proceedings | Year: 2015

The aim of this study is to enhance our understanding of anchorage capacity in reinforced concrete structures with corrosion-induced cover spalling. Our objective was to study the influence of corrosion-induced cover spalling on bond strength. Thus, earlier developed bond and corrosion models suited for detailed 30 fnite element (FE) analysis were first combined with a new computation scheme to simulate corrosion-induced cover spalling. The 30 FE analyses were validated through experiments. The application of 30 FE analysis showed that the corrosion of stirrups advances the emergence of cracking and spalling, while bond strength is only slightly influenced by the corrosion of stirrups after cover spalling if early yielding of stirrups had not taken place. Moreover, it was shown that stresses in the stirrups due to corrosion in adjacent bars rapidly diminished within a short distance fom the main bar, and that the corrosion of stirrups influenced the shear capacity more prominent than the induced stresses in stirrups due to the corrosion of main bars.


Tang L.,Chalmers University of Technology | Tang L.,CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute | Lindvall A.,Thomas Concrete Group AB
International Journal of Structural Engineering | Year: 2013

This paper presents the results from validation of models for prediction of chloride ingress in concrete exposed in de-icing salt road environment. Three models including the simple error-function complement (ERFC) model, the DuraCrete model and the ClinConc model, were evaluated using the measurement data collected from both the field exposure site after over ten years exposure and the real road bridges after 25-30 years in service. The sensitivity of input parameters in each model is analysed. The results show that, among different input parameters, the age factor is the most sensitive one. The simple ERFC model significantly overestimates chloride ingress. The DuraCrete model, if the input parameters are properly selected, may give a reasonably good prediction, otherwise often underestimates chloride ingress. The ClinConc model in general gives fairly good predictions for chloride ingress in de-icing salt road environment with heavy traffic at high speed. Copyright © 2013 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.


Muller U.,CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute | Miccoli L.,BAM Federal Institute of Materials Research and Testing | Fontana P.,BAM Federal Institute of Materials Research and Testing
Construction and Building Materials | Year: 2016

The study presents the results from the development of a grouting material based on hydrated lime with addition of pozzolana, which is referred to as hydraulic lime, suitable for the repair of cracks in a variety of earthen building techniques. The goal was to develop a material also compatible with earthen structures exposed to dynamic loads. The grouting mortar was designed to be adaptable in strength properties and at the same time to have sufficient robustness for preparation and use on the construction site. Results showed a satisfactory performance of the grout concerning fresh and hardened mortar properties as well as injectability. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Schlegel M.C.,BAM Federal Institute of Materials Research and Testing | Mueller U.,BAM Federal Institute of Materials Research and Testing | Malaga K.,CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute | Panne U.,BAM Federal Institute of Materials Research and Testing | And 2 more authors.
Cement and Concrete Composites | Year: 2013

Spatially resolved analysis of complex multi-phase systems can be validated through different analytical methods. This study compares investigations by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis and high resolution X-ray diffraction. The studied sulfate attacked cement paste containing fly ashes consists of different interacting crystalline and amorphous phases. The complementary methods revealed in detail changes in phase composition due to the chemical attack. The advantages and disadvantages of both methods are discussed and suggestions are given for combining them with additional methods to maximize the information content.© 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Zandi K.,Chalmers University of Technology | Zandi K.,CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute
Structure and Infrastructure Engineering | Year: 2015

The aim of this study is to enhance our understanding of anchorage capacity in reinforced concrete structures with corrosion-induced cover spalling. Our objectives were to study the influence of corrosion-induced cover spalling on bond strength, and to validate an existing one-dimensional (1D) analysis for anchorage capacity in such cases. Thus, earlier developed bond and corrosion models suited for detailed three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) analysis were first combined with a new computation scheme to simulate corrosion-induced cover spalling. The 1D and 3D FE analyses were validated through two types of experiments, i.e. eccentric pull-out tests and beam tests, as well as a comparison with an existing empirical model. The application of 3D FE analysis showed that the corrosion of stirrups advances the emergence of cracking and spalling, while bond strength is only slightly influenced by the corrosion of stirrups after cover spalling if yielding of stirrups has not taken place. Moreover, it was shown that stresses in the stirrups due to corrosion in adjacent bars rapidly diminished within a short distance from the main bar, and that the corrosion of stirrups influenced the shear capacity more prominently than the induced stresses in stirrups due to the corrosion of main bars. © 2015 Taylor & Francis.


Malaga K.,CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute | Malaga K.,BAM Federal Institute of Materials Research and Testing | Mueller U.,CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute | Mueller U.,BAM Federal Institute of Materials Research and Testing
Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering | Year: 2013

The problem of graffiti is not entirely restricted to urban areas, but also appears frequently in rural communities and along traffic infrastructure. Besides its aesthetic and societal effects, graffiti cause considerable removal costs and subsequent costs for repairing damages caused by improper graffiti removal. Over the last two decades, strategies have been developed to combat graffiti in the built environment, including the development of protective measures in the form of antigraffiti systems (AGSs). Antigraffiti systems promise to be affordable and easily applicable for a wide range of substrates, and many products have already been on the market for many years. In practice, however, successful application of AGS and removal of graffiti depend on many factors in which the type of coating and condition of the substrate play critical roles. The optimal environmental goal is to use AGS without any cleaning chemicals except for pure water. Available studies on the behavior of the same AGS on various substrates can show completely different results concerning the cleaning efficacy and the durability of the AGS under different climatic conditions. The question of which properties of an AGS are most essential for its efficiency has still not been fully investigated. The goal of this study was to investigate cleaning efficacy in conjunction with hydrophobic and oleophobic properties of the AGS on different substrates. The results showed that hydrophobicity and oleophobicity are important for dense substrates but have a low influence on porous substrates. In this case, cleaning efficiency is majorly determined by the physical properties of the substrates. © 2013 American Society of Civil Engineers.


Miccoli L.,BAM Federal Institute of Materials Research and Testing | Muller U.,CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute | Fontana P.,BAM Federal Institute of Materials Research and Testing
Construction and Building Materials | Year: 2014

Earth represents one of the oldest construction materials, which is still utilised both in developed and in developing countries. In this paper a comparison of the mechanical performance of structural elements built in three basic techniques, earth block (adobe) masonry, rammed earth and cob, is presented. In order to gain better knowledge on the structural behaviour under static loads an extensive compression and diagonal compression (shear) test campaign was performed. First compression results showed brittle mechanical behaviour in the case of earth block masonry and rammed earth elements, whereas cob exhibited a very different stress-strain pattern: cob can deform beyond the elastic range with a gradual drop in capacity. Despite its low compressive strength, cob thus presents a relatively good performance within the earthen material range as far as shear behaviour is concerned. The data here reported represents a base for a further investigation on the dynamic behaviour of the three materials considered. The study was carried out within the framework of the project NIKER funded by the European Commission dealing with improving immovable Cultural Heritage assets against the risk of earthquakes. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Hanjari K.Z.,Chalmers University of Technology | Utgenannt P.,CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute | Lundgren K.,Chalmers University of Technology
Cement and Concrete Research | Year: 2011

In an extensive experimental investigation, several types of tests were conducted on a reference specimen and frost-damaged concrete. Two levels of internal frost damage were quantified by the relative dynamic modulus of elasticity and compressive strength. Test results showed a significant influence of freeze-thaw cycles on the compressive strength and even more influence on the modulus of elasticity and the compressive strain at peak stress. Reduced tensile strength and increased fracture energy were measured. From inverse analysis of wedge splitting test results, a significant effect of frost on the shape of the tensile stress-crack opening relationship was observed: tensile strength was reduced, while the post-peak behaviour was more ductile for the frost-damaged concrete. Pull-out tests showed the influence of freeze-thaw cycles on bond strength and slip. The pull-out test results are compared with similar tests available in the literature and the effect of frost on bond behaviour is discussed. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Miccoli L.,BAM Federal Institute of Materials Research and Testing | Drougkas A.,National Technical University of Athens | Muller U.,CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute
Engineering Structures | Year: 2016

The purpose of this paper is to numerically simulate the in-plane behaviour of rammed earth walls under cyclic shear-compression tests. The experimental testing allowed obtaining the maximum horizontal loads, the displacement capacity and the level of non-linear behaviour of the respective load-displacement relationships as well as the failure modes. The calibration of the numerical model (finite element method) was carried out based on the experimental results. Within this framework, a micro-modelling approach was considered. The behaviour of the rammed earth material was simulated using a total strain rotating crack model. A Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion was used to reproduce the behaviour of the interfaces between the layers. Although the numerical results achieved a satisfactory agreement with the experimental results a sensitivity analysis of the parameters involved was performed. The sensitivity analysis aimed at determining which parameters of the model have a significant impact in the model's results. As expected the sensitivity analysis pointed out that the sliding failure occurrence is mainly influenced by two parameters of the interface elements: the interface tensile strength fit and the friction angle φ. Moreover the cohesion c and the layers thickness showed a limited effect on the shear behaviour. It should be noted that the results mentioned above are related to the cases where a significant level of vertical compressive stress σ is employed. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

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