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Plant and, Sweden

Mejersjo E.-M.,Swedish Board of Agriculture
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2010

In 1988, the Swedish Parliament decided on a special action programme for improving the environmental performance of agriculture. This was a result of the attention that problems with eutrophication attracted. At that time, the measures in the action programme mostly concerned areas with intensive agriculture and coastal areas. They focused on adapting plant nutrient supply to its specific need, on limiting pollution and on increasing the share of land under green cover in winter. The action programme has since been expanded to include measures for reducing ammonia losses from agriculture as well, and it has been revised and updated twice. The agricultural measures based on the action programme contribute both to reach the goals decided in Sweden, like the environmental quality objectives, and to reach international agreements and directives. Source

Osterman Lind E.,National Veterinary Institute SVA | Juremalm M.,National Veterinary Institute SVA | Christensson D.,National Veterinary Institute SVA | Widgren S.,National Veterinary Institute SVA | And 6 more authors.
Eurosurveillance | Year: 2011

Surveillance for the fox tapeworm, Echinococcus multilocularis, has been carried out in Sweden since 2000, with about 300 red foxes analysed annually. We report the first finding of E. multilocularis in Sweden, in a fox shot in December 2010 in the south-west of the country. A second infected fox shot in the same location was detected in March 2011. This paper describes the national monitoring programme and the ongoing work to estimate the prevalence and spread of the infection. Source

Caspersen S.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Svensson B.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Hakansson T.,HIR Skane | Winter C.,Swedish Board of Agriculture | And 2 more authors.
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2016

Demand for organic blueberries has risen in response to consumers' interest in healthy eating and greater awareness of the environment. Although organic production systems share many challenges with conventional systems, they have specific limitations and questions. Synchronisation of plant nutrient demand with the release of mineral nutrients from organic nutrient sources presents a particular challenge for the organic grower. In this paper we address belowground challenges in blueberry production from an organic perspective, such as soil properties and amendments as well as the choice of mulching material and organic fertilisers. We also address potential toxicity problems for blueberries associated with high concentrations of aluminium and manganese as well as salt stress. Symbiosis with ericoid mycorrhizal fungi is of potential interest in organic blueberry production as the fungi may improve plant access to nutrients from organic sources. The effects of management factors and limitations associated with the commercial utilisation of the symbiosis are also discussed. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. Source

Salomon E.,Swedish Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering | Rodhe L.,Swedish Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering | Malgeryd J.,Swedish Board of Agriculture | Lindgren K.,Swedish Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering | Lindahl C.,Swedish Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering
Open Agriculture Journal | Year: 2012

Ammonia (NH 3) emissions originate predominantly from manure. In outdoor pig production, excretory behaviour creates nitrogen (N) point loads. This study examined ammonia losses from pigs on grassland at two farms by calculating N field balances per pen and sub-areas preferred (P) and not preferred (NP) for excretion. Spatial variation in ammonia losses was measured with an equilibrium concentration method in one pen per farm during two years at the end of the fattening period. Cumulative ammonia losses during a fattening period were measured using a micrometeorological mass balance method. P sub-areas had 10-to 100-fold higher amounts of excreted N than NP sub-areas. Ammonia losses were higher from P sub-areas (0.056-1.843 g NH 3 ha -1 hr -1) than from NP sub-areas (0.001-0.332 g NH 3 ha -1 hr -1). Ammonia losses from NP sub-areas varied more widely. Cumulative NH 3 losses were 28 kg pen -1. Gross NH 3 losses were 0.66 kg N pig -1, representing 14% of excreted N. © Salomon et al. Source

Mattsson K.,Swedish Board of Agriculture
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2015

Trade standards provide a product description that serves as a basis for commercial agreements between seller and buyer. When they contain quality classes (extra, I and II), different prices can be set. Today the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) and the Codex Alimentarius Commission draw up quality standards for fresh fruits and vegetables, and both the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and UNECE interpret standards. To be useful to traders, quality standards need to reflect current production and trade practices. A standard should be applicable in all regions where it is used; otherwise it will become a technical barrier to trade. By providing commonly agreed product descriptions, standards clarify the buyers' requirements for producers, sorters and packers. This reduces misunderstandings and returns. Quality standards can increase waste by limiting the lowest acceptable quality, if there is a demand for products of a quality below the standard's lowest acceptable limit and if it is compulsory to apply the standards. But if standards correctly reflect market requirements, they will not increase waste since buyers would have the same requirements even if standards did not exist. To some extent, the influence between standard-setting and market requirements is reciprocal. When standards are being drafted or changed, requirements need to be set at the correct level. "Cosmetic" requirements with no effect on eating quality, keeping quality or nutritional value may increase waste and/or use of pesticides and fungicides without improving consumer eating satisfaction. Greater consumer knowledge and awareness, however, would lead to less waste and less use of chemicals. Thus, producers, traders, retailers, consumers and standard-setting bodies all have a role in reducing waste and the use of chemicals in the production and distribution of fresh fruits and vegetables. Source

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