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Mutule A.,Institute of Physical Energetics of Latvia | Obushevs A.,Institute of Physical Energetics of Latvia | Lvov A.,Institute of Physical Energetics of Latvia | Segerberg H.,Balslev A/S | And 6 more authors.
2013 4th IEEE/PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Europe, ISGT Europe 2013 | Year: 2013

The paper presents the main goals and achievements of the Smart Grids ERA-NET project named 'Efficient identification of opportunities for Distributed Generation based on Smart Grid Technology (SmartGen)' during the second stage of project implementation. A description of Smart Grid Technology (SGT) models developed within the framework of the project is given. The performed study cases where the SGT-models were implemented to analyze the impact of the electrical grid are discussed. © 2013 IEEE. Source


Havrevoll T.I.,Norsk Hydro | Ekkje S.A.,Norsk Hydro | Tjugen K.J.,Sweco Norge AS
Dam Maintenance and Rehabilitation II - Proceedings of the 2nd International Congress on Dam Maintenance and Rehabilitation | Year: 2011

Valldalen dam is a rock-fill dam with moraine core, height 93 m and crest length 360 m. The spillway consists of a free flow structure, a shaft and a horizontal tunnel. Vasstolvatn dam is a CFRD type, height 26 m and crest length 320 m with a free flow spillway structure. "Norwegian water resources and energy directorate" (NVE), administer the regulations requiring that each Norwegian dam registered within Consequence classes shall be subject to regular re-evaluation each 15 year. Re-evaluation of both Valldalen dam and Vasstolvatn dam revealed that the dams did not meet guideline criteria for damtoe drainage capacity, downstream slope erosion protection and dam crest freeboard. In addition, the result of updated flood estimates at Valldalen dam also showed that the actual capacity of the spillway shaft and tunnel became exceeded. This paper presents the background, planning of actions to be taken and execution of works to be performed in order to meet the guideline criteria. © 2011 Taylor & Francis Group, London. Source


Kokosin J.,Sweco Norge AS | Gosar A.,University of Ljubljana | Gosar A.,Slovenian Environment Agency
The Scientific World Journal | Year: 2013

Breginjski kot is among the most endangered seismic zones in Slovenia with the seismic hazard assessed to intensity IX MSK and the design ground acceleration of 0.250 g, both for 500-year return period. The most destructive was the 1976 Friuli Mw = 6.4 earthquake which had maximum intensity VIII-IX. Since the previous microzonation of the area was based solely on the basic geological map and did not include supplementary field research, we have performed a new soil classification of the area. First, a detailed engineering geological mapping in scale 1: 5.000 was conducted. Mapped units were described in detail and some of them interpreted anew. Stiff sites are composed of hard to medium-hard rocks which were subjected to erosion mainly evoked by glacial and postglacial age. At that time a prominent topography was formed and different types of sediments were deposited in valleys by mass flows. A distinction between sediments and weathered rocks, their exact position, and thickness are of significant importance for microzonation. On the basis of geological mapping, a soil classification was carried out according to the Medvedev method (intensity increments) and the Eurocode 8 standard (soil factors) and two microzonation maps were prepared. The bulk of the studied area is covered by soft sediments and nine out of ten settlements are situated on them. The microzonation clearly points out the dependence of damage distribution in the case of 1976 Friuli earthquake to local site effects. © 2013 Jure Kokošin and Andrej Gosar. Source


Francois B.,University of Padua | Borga M.,University of Padua | Creutin J.D.,Joseph Fourier University | Creutin J.D.,Pierre Mendes-France University | And 6 more authors.
Renewable Energy | Year: 2016

Climate related energy sources such as wind, solar and runoff sources are variable in time and space, following their driving weather variables. High penetration of such energy sources might be facilitated by using their complementarity in order to increase the balance between energy load and generation. This study presents the analysis of the effect of a 100% renewable energy mix composed by solar and run-of-the-river energy in Northern Italy where these two energy sources are the main alternative energy sources. Along a climate gradient from the Alpine crest (snow melt dominated area) to the Veneto plain (rainfall dominated area), solar power is generated in the flat plain, and run-of-the-river hydropower at two mountainous locations. Covering all possible mixes of these two sources, we analyze their complementarity across different temporal scales using two indicators: the standard deviation of the energy balance and the theoretical storage required for balancing generation and load. Results show that at small temporal scale (hourly), a high share of run-of-the-river power allows minimizing the energy balance variability. The opposite is obtained at larger temporal scales (daily and monthly) essentially because of lower variability of solar power generation, which also implies a lower storage requirement. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Gregersen H.,Sweco Norge AS | Gregersen F.,Aage Hakonsens vei 1D
Ornis Norvegica | Year: 2014

Within the fields of behavioral ecology, population ecology and wildlife management, Black Grouse Lyrurus tetrix is of special interest, as it is a promiscuous, polygamous and lekking game species. In 2011 and 2012 we surveyed six leks in Eastern Norway with wildlife cameras. Here, we show how wildlife cameras can ease data sampling on leks and give us good data on numbers and temporal patterns of visits. Wildlife cameras allow continuous sampling of large amounts of data for long time periods but may underestimate actual visit percent. Our results show that Black Grouse males visit leks most of the year. The fact that we may underestimate actual visit percent means that leks could be even more important than our data suggest. Source

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