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Klove B.,University of Oulu | Kvitsand H.M.L.,Asplan Viak | Pitkanen T.,Finnish National Institute for Health and Welfare | Gunnarsdottir M.J.,University of Iceland | And 4 more authors.
Hydrogeology Journal | Year: 2017

The characteristics of groundwater systems and groundwater contamination in Finland, Norway and Iceland are presented, as they relate to outbreaks of disease. Disparities among the Nordic countries in the approach to providing safe drinking water from groundwater are discussed, and recommendations are given for the future. Groundwater recharge is typically high in autumn or winter months or after snowmelt in the coldest regions. Most inland aquifers are unconfined and therefore vulnerable to pollution, but they are often without much anthropogenic influence and the water quality is good. In coastal zones, previously emplaced marine sediments may confine and protect aquifers to some extent. However, the water quality in these aquifers is highly variable, as the coastal regions are also most influenced by agriculture, sea-water intrusion and urban settlements resulting in challenging conditions for water abstraction and supply. Groundwater is typically extracted from Quaternary deposits for small and medium municipalities, from bedrock for single households, and from surface water for the largest cities, except for Iceland, which relies almost entirely on groundwater for public supply. Managed aquifer recharge, with or without prior water treatment, is widely used in Finland to extend present groundwater resources. Especially at small utilities, groundwater is often supplied without treatment. Despite generally good water quality, microbial contamination has occurred, principally by norovirus and Campylobacter, with larger outbreaks resulting from sewage contamination, cross-connections into drinking water supplies, heavy rainfall events, and ingress of polluted surface water to groundwater. © 2017 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg


Kokosin J.,Sweco Norge AS | Gosar A.,University of Ljubljana | Gosar A.,Slovenian Environment Agency
The Scientific World Journal | Year: 2013

Breginjski kot is among the most endangered seismic zones in Slovenia with the seismic hazard assessed to intensity IX MSK and the design ground acceleration of 0.250 g, both for 500-year return period. The most destructive was the 1976 Friuli Mw = 6.4 earthquake which had maximum intensity VIII-IX. Since the previous microzonation of the area was based solely on the basic geological map and did not include supplementary field research, we have performed a new soil classification of the area. First, a detailed engineering geological mapping in scale 1: 5.000 was conducted. Mapped units were described in detail and some of them interpreted anew. Stiff sites are composed of hard to medium-hard rocks which were subjected to erosion mainly evoked by glacial and postglacial age. At that time a prominent topography was formed and different types of sediments were deposited in valleys by mass flows. A distinction between sediments and weathered rocks, their exact position, and thickness are of significant importance for microzonation. On the basis of geological mapping, a soil classification was carried out according to the Medvedev method (intensity increments) and the Eurocode 8 standard (soil factors) and two microzonation maps were prepared. The bulk of the studied area is covered by soft sediments and nine out of ten settlements are situated on them. The microzonation clearly points out the dependence of damage distribution in the case of 1976 Friuli earthquake to local site effects. © 2013 Jure Kokošin and Andrej Gosar.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: LCE-07-2016-2017 | Award Amount: 7.17M | Year: 2016

FIThydro addresses the decision support in commissioning and operating hydropower plants (HPP) by use of existing and innovative technologies. It concentrates on mitigation measures and strategies to develop cost-efficient environmental solutions and on strategies to avoid individual fish damage and enhancing population developments. Therefore HPPS all over Europe are involved as test sites. The facilities for upstream and downstream migration are evaluated, different bypass systems including their use as habitats and the influence of sediment on habitat. In addition existing tools and devices will be enhanced during the project and will be used in the experimental set-ups in the laboratories and at the test sites for e.g. detection of fish or prediction of behavior. This includes sensor fish, different solutions for migration as e.g. trash rack variations, different fish tracking systems, but also numerical models as habitat and population model or virtual fish swimming path model. Therefore a three-level-based workplan was created with preparatory desk work at the beginning to analyze shortcomings and potential in environment-friendly hydropower. Following the experimental tests will be conducted at the different test sites to demonstrate and evaluate the effects of the different options not covered by the desk-work. Thirdly, these results are fed into a risk based Decision Support System (DSS) which is developed for planning, commissioning and operating of HPPs. It is meant to enable operators to fulfill the requirements of cost-effective production and at the same time meet the environmental obligations and targets under European legislation and achieve a self-sustained fish population.


Mutule A.,Institute of Physical Energetics of Latvia | Obushevs A.,Institute of Physical Energetics of Latvia | Lvov A.,Institute of Physical Energetics of Latvia | Segerberg H.,Balslev A/S | And 6 more authors.
2013 4th IEEE/PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Europe, ISGT Europe 2013 | Year: 2013

The paper presents the main goals and achievements of the Smart Grids ERA-NET project named 'Efficient identification of opportunities for Distributed Generation based on Smart Grid Technology (SmartGen)' during the second stage of project implementation. A description of Smart Grid Technology (SGT) models developed within the framework of the project is given. The performed study cases where the SGT-models were implemented to analyze the impact of the electrical grid are discussed. © 2013 IEEE.


Gregersen H.,Sweco Norge AS | Gregersen F.,Aage Hakonsens Vei 1D
Ornis Norvegica | Year: 2014

Within the fields of behavioral ecology, population ecology and wildlife management, Black Grouse Lyrurus tetrix is of special interest, as it is a promiscuous, polygamous and lekking game species. In 2011 and 2012 we surveyed six leks in Eastern Norway with wildlife cameras. Here, we show how wildlife cameras can ease data sampling on leks and give us good data on numbers and temporal patterns of visits. Wildlife cameras allow continuous sampling of large amounts of data for long time periods but may underestimate actual visit percent. Our results show that Black Grouse males visit leks most of the year. The fact that we may underestimate actual visit percent means that leks could be even more important than our data suggest.


Francois B.,University of Padua | Borga M.,University of Padua | Creutin J.D.,Joseph Fourier University | Creutin J.D.,Pierre Mendès-France University | And 6 more authors.
Renewable Energy | Year: 2016

Climate related energy sources such as wind, solar and runoff sources are variable in time and space, following their driving weather variables. High penetration of such energy sources might be facilitated by using their complementarity in order to increase the balance between energy load and generation. This study presents the analysis of the effect of a 100% renewable energy mix composed by solar and run-of-the-river energy in Northern Italy where these two energy sources are the main alternative energy sources. Along a climate gradient from the Alpine crest (snow melt dominated area) to the Veneto plain (rainfall dominated area), solar power is generated in the flat plain, and run-of-the-river hydropower at two mountainous locations. Covering all possible mixes of these two sources, we analyze their complementarity across different temporal scales using two indicators: the standard deviation of the energy balance and the theoretical storage required for balancing generation and load. Results show that at small temporal scale (hourly), a high share of run-of-the-river power allows minimizing the energy balance variability. The opposite is obtained at larger temporal scales (daily and monthly) essentially because of lower variability of solar power generation, which also implies a lower storage requirement. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Hughes D.A.B.,Queen's University of Belfast | Clarke G.R.T.,Sweco Norge AS | Harley R.M.G.,Queen's University of Belfast | Barbour S.L.,University of Saskatchewan
Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology | Year: 2016

This paper describes the hydrogeological processes that caused unexpected instability and quick conditions during the excavation of a 25 m deep cutting through a drumlin in County Down, Northern Ireland. A conceptual hydrogeological model of the cutting, based on pore pressures monitored during and after the excavation, demonstrates how quick conditions at the toe of the cutting caused liquefaction of the till. Stability of the cutting was re-established by draining the highly permeable, weathered greywacke that underlies the drumlin, through the use of a deep toe drain. In spite of this drainage, the cutting was only marginally stable, owing to the presence of a low-permeability zone in the till above the bedrock, which limits the reduction of elevated pore pressures within the upper to mid-depths of the drumlin. The factor of safety has been further improved by the addition of vertical relief drains at the crest and berm of the cutting to relieve the pore pressures within the upper till by intercepting the weathered bedrock. The paper also highlights the importance of carrying out an adequate site investigation compliant with Eurocode 7 and additional monitoring in excavations in stiff, low-permeability till. © 2016 The Author(s).


Lande U.S.,Hedmark University College | Herfindal I.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Finne M.H.,Sweco Norge AS | Kastdalen L.,Hedmark University College
European Journal of Wildlife Research | Year: 2010

Wildlife monitoring performed by volunteer personnel may suffer from bias with regard to their habitat use. Such errors can lead to erroneous population estimates, evidently influencing both management programmes and research that are based on the monitoring. We used a dataset on hunters' habitat use in forest while searching for black grouse (Tetrao tetrix) and capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus) to test whether hunters' utilisation of the habitat was independent of that of grouse or if it corresponded to the grouse habitat preference. Twenty volunteer hunters with dogs registered their tracks and all observations of capercaillie and black grouse in Østfold County, Norway, during August 2003 and 2004. We performed an ecological niche factor analysis (ENFA) and a K-select analysis with respect to hunters' selection for habitat, described with ecogeographical variables related to forest stand characteristics, as well as the habitat preference of the observed grouse, conditional on the habitat utilisation of the hunters. Individual ENFA on the hunter's tracks revealed large variation in the habitat preferences of the hunters. The K-select indicated few overall patterns in the habitat characteristics of grouse observations, conditional on the hunters selected habitat. Accordingly, the results indicate that hunters' observation of grouse prior to the hunt may give indicators of changes in grouse density unbiased by habitat preference due to the large between-hunter variation in habitat preference, given that a sufficient number of hunters is used. This suggests that such monitoring programmes can provide information about fluctuations in grouse population sizes valuable for both the management and research of forest grouse species. © Springer-Verlag 2009.


Hiller P.H.,Sweco Norge AS | Steffen K.,Verkehr und Umwelt BVU | Boes R.M.,Laboratory of Hydraulics | Killingtveit A.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology
International Journal on Hydropower and Dams | Year: 2011

While hydropower is considered a promising energy source to achieve climate protection goals, there can be conflicts between the attractive appearance of waterfalls and diverting water to produce power. In a European case study, seven waterfalls were observed, and a discharge-related picture series shows the interaction between the flow and the appearance of waterfalls. On the basis of this study, a methodology to determine minimal flow requirements at waterfalls has been developed. Based on the area covered by water and the time of water extraction, the extent of the impact is determined. The extent and value of the waterfall are then combined in a consequence matrix. The methodology is approved on a Norwegian and an Austrian waterfall.


Havrevoll T.I.,Norsk Hydro | Ekkje S.A.,Norsk Hydro | Tjugen K.J.,Sweco Norge AS
Dam Maintenance and Rehabilitation II - Proceedings of the 2nd International Congress on Dam Maintenance and Rehabilitation | Year: 2011

Valldalen dam is a rock-fill dam with moraine core, height 93 m and crest length 360 m. The spillway consists of a free flow structure, a shaft and a horizontal tunnel. Vasstolvatn dam is a CFRD type, height 26 m and crest length 320 m with a free flow spillway structure. "Norwegian water resources and energy directorate" (NVE), administer the regulations requiring that each Norwegian dam registered within Consequence classes shall be subject to regular re-evaluation each 15 year. Re-evaluation of both Valldalen dam and Vasstolvatn dam revealed that the dams did not meet guideline criteria for damtoe drainage capacity, downstream slope erosion protection and dam crest freeboard. In addition, the result of updated flood estimates at Valldalen dam also showed that the actual capacity of the spillway shaft and tunnel became exceeded. This paper presents the background, planning of actions to be taken and execution of works to be performed in order to meet the guideline criteria. © 2011 Taylor & Francis Group, London.

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