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Geelong West, Australia

Malhi G.S.,CADE Clinic | Malhi G.S.,University of Sydney | Bargh D.M.,CADE Clinic | Bargh D.M.,University of Sydney | And 10 more authors.
Bipolar Disorders

Objective: To provide practical and clinically meaningful treatment recommendations that amalgamate clinical experience and research findings for each phase of bipolar disorder. Methods: A comprehensive search of the literature was undertaken using electronic database search engines (Medline, PubMed, Cochrane reviews) using key words (e.g., bipolar depression, mania, treatment). All relevant randomised controlled trials were examined, along with review papers, meta-analyses, and book chapters known to the authors. In addition, the recommendations from accompanying papers in this supplement have been distilled and captured in the form of summary boxes. The findings, in conjunction with the clinical experience of international researchers and clinicians who are practiced in treating mood disorders, formed the basis of the treatment recommendations within this paper. Results: Balancing clinical experience with evidence informed and lead to the development of practical clinical recommendations that emphasise the importance of safety and tolerability alongside efficacy in the clinical management of bipolar disorder. Conclusions: The current paper summarises the treatment recommendations relating to each phase of bipolar disorder while providing additional, evidence-based, practical insights. Medication-related side effects and monitoring strategies highlight the importance of safety and tolerability considerations, which, along with efficacy information, should be given equal merit. © 2012 John Wiley and Sons A/S. Source

Singh A.B.,Deakin University | Nierenberg A.A.,Deakin University | Nierenberg A.A.,Harvard University | Yatham L.N.,University of British Columbia | And 4 more authors.
BMC Medicine

With escalating health expenditure and a shrinking purse, there is increased focus on the cost efficacy of still patented versus generic medications in general, and for atypical antipsychotics in particular. In a recent BMC Medicine article, Godman and colleagues presented data indicating poor uptake of the off patent atypical antipsychotic risperidone, arguing for authorities to mandate its greater use. This is under the assumption of clinical equivalence of atypical antipsychotics. This commentary argues that there are clinically meaningful differences between atypical antipsychotics and important inter-individual heterogeneity in clinical response and tolerability. Access to a broad range of atypical antipsychotics enables clinicians to tailor care, taking consideration of differential efficacy and adverse effects profile in order to meet the needs of individual patients with improved real world effectiveness of treatment. Restriction of agent choice risks detracting from optimal clinical care, with possible poorer outcomes and greater costs of care. A balance between encouraging use of cheapest in class agent and allowing access to various atypical agents for tailored care is likely to produce optimal health outcomes.Please see related article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/12/98. © 2014 Singh et al. Source

Malhi G.S.,CADE Clinic | Malhi G.S.,University of Sydney | Tanious M.,CADE Clinic | Tanious M.,University of Sydney | And 7 more authors.
Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry

Introduction: Despite more that 60 years of clinical experience, the effective use of lithium for the treatment of mood disorder, in particular bipolarity, is in danger of becoming obsolete. In part, this is because of exaggerated fears surrounding lithium toxicity, acute and long-term tolerability and the encumbrance of life-long plasma monitoring. Recent research has once again positioned lithium centre stage and amplified the importance of understanding its science and how this translates to clinical practice.Objective: The aim of this paper is to provide a sound knowledge base as regards the science and practice of lithium therapy.Method: A comprehensive literature search using electronic databases was conducted along with a detailed review of articles known to the authors pertaining to the use of lithium. Studies were limited to English publications and those dealing with the management of psychiatric disorders in humans. The literature was synthesized and organized according to relevance to clinical practice and understanding.Results: Lithium has simple pharmacokinetics that require regular dosing and monitoring. Its mechanisms of action are complex and its effects are multi-faceted, extending beyond mood stability to neuroprotective and anti-suicidal properties. Its use in bipolar disorder is under-appreciated, particularly as it has the best evidence for prophylaxis, qualifying it perhaps as the only true mood stabilizer currently available. In practice, its risks and tolerability are exaggerated and can be readily minimized with knowledge of its clinical profile and judicious application.Conclusion: Lithium is a safe and effective agent that should, whenever indicated, be used first-line for the treatment of bipolar disorder. A better understanding of its science alongside strategic management of its plasma levels will ensure both wider utility and improved outcomes. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2012. Source

Daglas R.,University of Melbourne | Conus P.,University of Lausanne | Cotton S.M.,University of Melbourne | Macneil C.A.,Orygen Youth Health Clinical Program | And 5 more authors.
Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry

Objective: Past traumatic events have been associated with poorer clinical outcomes in people with bipolar disorder. However, the impact of these events in the early stages of the illness remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate whether prior traumatic events were related to poorer outcomes 12 months following a first episode of psychotic mania.Methods: Traumatic events were retrospectively evaluated from patient files in a sample of 65 participants who had experienced first episode psychotic mania. Participants were aged between 15 and 28 years and were treated at a specialised early psychosis service. Clinical outcomes were measured by a variety of symptomatic and functioning scales at the 12-month time-point.Results: Direct-personal traumatic experiences prior to the onset of psychotic mania were reported by 48% of the sample. Participants with past direct-personal trauma had significantly higher symptoms of mania (p=0.02), depression (p=0.03) and psychopathology (p=0.01) 12 months following their first episode compared to participants without past direct-personal trauma, with medium to large effects observed. After adjusting for baseline scores, differences in global functioning (as measured by the Global Assessment of Functioning scale) were non-significant (p=0.05); however, participants with past direct-personal trauma had significantly poorer social and occupational functioning (p=0.04) at the 12-month assessment with medium effect.Conclusions: Past direct-personal trauma may predict poorer symptomatic and functional outcomes after first episode psychotic mania. Limitations include that the findings represent individuals treated at a specialist early intervention centre for youth and the retrospective assessment of traumatic events may have been underestimated. © 2014 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists. Source

Odebrecht Vargas Nunes S.,State University Londrina | Pizzo De Castro M.R.,State University Londrina | Ehara Watanabe M.A.,State University Londrina | Losi Guembarovski R.,State University Londrina | And 9 more authors.
Psychiatric Genetics

BACKGROUND: Nicotine dependence is associated with an increased risk of mood and anxiety disorders and suicide. The primary hypothesis of this study was to identify whether the polymorphisms of two glutathione-S-transferase enzymes (GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes) predict an increased risk of mood and anxiety disorders in smokers with nicotine dependence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Smokers were recruited at the Centre of Treatment for Smokers. The instruments were a sociodemographic questionnaire, Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence, diagnoses of mood disorder and nicotine dependence according to DSM-IV (SCID-IV), and the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test. Anxiety disorder was assessed based on the treatment report. Laboratory assessment included glutathione-S-transferases M1 (GSTM1) and T1 (GSTT1), which were detected by a multiplex-PCR protocol. RESULTS: Compared with individuals who had both GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes, a higher frequency of at least one deletion of the GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes was identified in anxious smokers [odds ratio (OR)=2.21, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.05-4.65, P=0.034], but there was no association with bipolar and unipolar depression (P=0.943). Compared with nonanxious smokers, anxious smokers had a greater risk for mood disorders (OR=4.67; 95% CI=2.24-9.92, P<0.001), lung disease (OR=6.78, 95% CI=1.95-23.58, P<0.003), and suicide attempts (OR=17.01, 95% CI=2.23-129.91, P<0.006). CONCLUSION: This study suggests that at least one deletion of the GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes represents a risk factor for anxious smokers. These two genes may modify the capacity for the detoxification potential against oxidative stress.©2014 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

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