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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) belong to class of small non-coding RNAs that regulate numerous biological processes by targeting broad set of messenger RNAs. Research on miRNA-based biomarkers has witnessed phenomenal growth, owing to non-invasive nature of miRNA based screening assays and their sensitivity and specificity in detecting cancers. Their discovery in humans in 2000 has led to an explosion in research in terms of their role as biomarker, therapeutic target and trying to elucidate their function. This review aims to summarize the function of microRNAs as well as to examine how dysregulation at any step in their biogenesis or functional pathway can play a role in development of cancer, together with its possible involvement in oral cancer. Overexpression of oncogenic miRNA may reduce protein products of tumor-suppressor genes but loss of tumor-suppressor miRNA expression may cause elevated levels of oncogenic protein. One or both of these alterations could represent new targets for cancer diagnosis and treatment in future. Many researchers have focused on genetic and epigenetic alterations in OSCC cells. The genetic susceptibility, endemic environment factors, and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection are believed to be the major etiologic factors of OSCC. Once metastasis occurs, prognosis is very poor. It is urgently needed to develop biomarkers for early clinical diagnosis/prognosis, and novel effective therapies for oral carcinoma. High-risk HPV infection leads to aberrant expression of cellular oncogenic and tumor suppressive miRNAs. The emergence of miRNA knowledge, and its potential interactive action with such alterations, therefore creates new understanding of cell transformation. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Yashoda Devi B.K.,Bangalore University | Rakesh N.,Bangalore University | Reddy S.S.,Bangalore University | Patil D.J.,Swami Devi Dyal Dental College and Hospital
Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology | Year: 2015

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), including both the traditional nonselective NSAIDs and the selective cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitors, are widely used for their anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. They are routinely prescribed in dental practice for the management of pain and swelling. Their use in treating acute dental pain and chronic orofacial pain, as adjuncts to the treatment of periodontal disease, and to minimize edema following surgical procedures is well documented. However, long-term utilization of nonselective NSAIDs could increase the risk of gastrointestinal symptoms, ranging from mild (e.g., dyspepsia, nausea, or vomiting) to serious gastric problems (e.g., gastric bleeding or perforation). Therefore, selective COX-2 inhibitors have been developed with fewer GI side effects but the recently identified cardiovascular adverse reactions limit their routine use in dental practice. Another major concern for oral physicians is NSAID-induced mucosal lesions and prolongation of bleeding time during invasive dental procedures. This article reviews therapeutic and analgesic uses of NSAIDs in dentistry. The various issues surrounding NSAID-induced adverse reactions and their implications in dentistry are also discussed. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. Source


Kaur P.,Swami Devi Dyal Dental College and Hospital | Puneet,Swami Devi Dyal Dental College and Hospital | Dahiya V.,JKK Nataraja Dental College and Hospital
Trends in Biomaterials and Artificial Organs | Year: 2011

A promising biologic therapy, offering various applications in dentistry is the use of platelet rich- plasma (PRP). PRP has became an increasingly popular clinical tool as an alternative source of growth factors for several types of dental procedures. These growth factors are described as promoters of tissue repair mechanisms and remodelling. The application of PRP in dentistry include sinus grafting, periodontal soft and hard tissue surgical procedures, ridge augmentation, dental implant osseous-integration etc. The use of PRP represents a relatively new concept of biotechnology that is becoming inseparable part of tissue engineering and cellular therapy today. The purpose of this article is to update clinician's knowledge about the preparation of PRP, its most efficacious means of application and reviews the current literature on this emerging treatment modality. Source


Jatti D.,Swami Devi Dyal Dental College and Hospital
Journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery : official journal of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons | Year: 2015

Metastatic lesions of the oral cavity are extremely rare, accounting for approximately 1% of all malignant oral tumors. Renal clear cell carcinoma (RCCC) constitutes about 3% of the solid tumors in adults. It is the third most frequent neoplasm to metastasize to the head and neck region, preceded by breast and lung carcinoma. Because of the silent growth of this neoplasm, most patients are asymptomatic and are diagnosed in an advanced stage, frequently with metastases. We report an unusual case of a 60-year-old male patient with an ulcerated nodule on the upper lip mimicking a keratoacanthoma. He was treated for left-sided RCCC 5 months earlier. The lesion was excised, and the histopathologic findings were suggestive of metastatic RCCC. The clinical features, prognosis, and treatment modalities for metastatic lesions are reviewed in our report. This case is a rarity because only 3 cases of metastatic RCCC of the upper lip have been reported in the literature. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source


Jatti D.,Swami Devi Dyal Dental College and Hospital | Puri G.,Swami Devi Dyal Dental College and Hospital | Aravinda K.,Swami Devi Dyal Dental College and Hospital | Dheer D.S.,Swami Devi Dyal Dental College and Hospital
Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery | Year: 2015

Metastatic lesions of the oral cavity are extremely rare, accounting for approximately 1% of all malignant oral tumors. Renal clear cell carcinoma (RCCC) constitutes about 3% of the solid tumors in adults. It is the third most frequent neoplasm to metastasize to the head and neck region, preceded by breast and lung carcinoma. Because of the silent growth of this neoplasm, most patients are asymptomatic and are diagnosed in an advanced stage, frequently with metastases. We report an unusual case of a 60-year-old male patient with an ulcerated nodule on the upper lip mimicking a keratoacanthoma. He was treated for left-sided RCCC 5 months earlier. The lesion was excised, and the histopathologic findings were suggestive of metastatic RCCC. The clinical features, prognosis, and treatment modalities for metastatic lesions are reviewed in our report. This case is a rarity because only 3 cases of metastatic RCCC of the upper lip have been reported in the literature. © 2015 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Source

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