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‘Ayn al ‘Arab, Syria

Al Chami Z.,Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Bari CIHEAM | Amer N.,Parthenope University of Naples | Amer N.,Swaida Research Center | Smets K.,Hasselt University | And 4 more authors.
Biomass and Bioenergy | Year: 2014

Treatment and/or disposal of metal contaminated biomass are still an unsolved problem. Knowledge of the metal distribution is of prime importance concerning the application of pyrolysis product streams. Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench was cultivated in a semi-hydroponic system to assess its potential use in phytoremediation and biomass production. Plants were grown in a greenhouse using perlite as substrate, half-strength Hoagland's solution as control (CTR) and the same solution supplemented with a mixture of Ni and Zn (CTM; 10gm-3 each). Shoot and root biomass were determined and analyzed for their metals content. Flash and slow pyrolysis were performed on S. bicolor shoots at 450°C. Biomass and pyrolysis products were analyzed focusing on metal distribution. Mass and energy balances were determined. S. bicolor delivered good shoot biomass with relatively moderate concentrations of Ni and Zn. Metal concentrations in the pyrolysis oils were below detection limits and almost all metals accumulated in the char. In fact, 99% of Ni and 98% of Zn were recovered in the char when a slow pyrolysis process was applied, while in flash pyrolysis conditions both metals were found back in the char and in the heating transfer medium. Furthermore, the percentages of char and oil were higher in slow pyrolysis compared to flash pyrolysis. Energy recovery in the char from slow pyrolysis was higher than flash pyrolysis. Flash and slow pyrolysis can likely offer a valuable processing method for metal contaminated biomass, thus limiting the waste disposal problem associated with phytoremediation of metals. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Al Chami Z.,CIHEAM Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Bari IAM Bari | Amer N.,Parthenope University of Naples | Amer N.,Swaida Research Center | Al Bitar L.,CIHEAM Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Bari IAM Bari | Cavoski I.,CIHEAM Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Bari IAM Bari
International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2015

Metals are very common contaminants in the soil. High-yielding biomass crops offer good potential for the phytoremediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals. Biomass fuel crops grown on contaminated land have several advantages as site remediation combined with bioenergy production. In this context, two energy crops, Sorghum bicolor and Carthamus tinctorius, were grown hydroponically to assess their potential use in phytoremediation of nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) and biomass production. The experiment was carried out in a growth chamber using half-strength Hoagland’s solution spiked separately with five concentrations for Ni, Pb and Zn (between 5 and 100 mg L−1). Shoot and root biomass were determined and analyzed for their metals contents. Results showed that the tested plants were able to uptake Ni, Pb and Zn. Furthermore, roots accumulated more metals than shoots. Ni seems to be more toxic than Zn and Pb. In fact, both species were unable to grow at Ni concentration above 10 mg L−1. Metal toxicity ranked as follows: Ni > Zn > Pb. High toxicity symptoms and biomass reduction were observed at concentrations of Pb and Zn above 25 mg L−1 for both species. S. bicolor was more efficient than C. tinctorius in metal uptake due to the high biomass production and the relatively high shoot concentration of metal. S. bicolor could be successfully used in phytoremediation applications in marginal soils with moderately heavy metal contamination. However, results obtained through the hydroponic experiment need to be confirmed by field experiments. © 2015, Islamic Azad University (IAU). Source


Amer N.,Parthenope University of Naples | Amer N.,Swaida Research Center | Chami Z.A.,Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Bari CIHEAM | Bitar L.A.,Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Bari CIHEAM | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Phytoremediation | Year: 2013

Suitable plant species are able to accumulate heavy metals and to produce biomass useful for non-food purposes. In this study, three endemic Mediterranean plant species, Atriplex halimus, Portulaca oleracea and Medicago lupulina were grown hydroponically to assess their potential use in phytoremediation and biomass production. The experiment was carried out in a growth chamber using half strength Hoagland's solutions separately spiked with 5 concentrations of Pb and Zn (5, 10, 25, 50, and 100 mg L-1), and 3 concentrations of Ni (1, 2 and 5 mg L-1). Shoot and root biomass were determined and analyzed for their metals contents.A. halimusandM. lupulina gave high shoot biomass with relatively low metal translocation to the above ground parts. Metals uptake was a function of both metals and plant species. It is worth noting thatM. lupulina was the only tested plant able to grow in treatment Pb50 and to accumulate significant amount of metal in roots. Plant metal uptake efficiency ranked as follows:A. halimus > M. lupulina > P. oleracea. Due to its high biomass production and the relatively high roots metal contents,A. halimusandM. lupulina could be successfully used in phytoremediation, and in phytostabilization, in particular. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

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