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Terhal P.A.,University Utrecht | Van Dommelen P.,TNO | Le Merrer M.,University of Paris Descartes | Zankl A.,University of Queensland | And 17 more authors.
American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part C: Seminars in Medical Genetics | Year: 2012

From data collected via a large international collaborative study, we have constructed a growth chart for patients with molecularly confirmed congenital spondylo-epiphyseal dysplasia (SEDC) and other COL2A1 related dysplasias. The growth chart is based on longitudinal height measurements of 79 patients with glycine substitutions in the triple-helical domain of COL2A1. In addition, measurements of 27 patients with other molecular defects, such as arginine to cysteine substitutions, splice mutations, and mutations in the C-terminal propeptide have been plotted on the chart. Height of the patients progressively deviate from that of normal children: compared to normal WHO charts, the mean length/height is -2.6 SD at birth, -4.2 SD at 5 years, and -5.8 SD in adulthood. The mean adult height (male and female combined) of patients with glycine substitutions in the triple-helical region is 138.2cm but there is a large variation. Patients with glycine to cysteine substitutions tend to cluster within the upper part of the chart, while patients with glycine to serine or valine substitutions are situated between +1 SD and -1 SD. Patients with carboxy-terminal glycine substitutions tend to be shorter than patients with amino-terminal substitutions, while patients with splice mutations are relatively tall. However, there are exceptions and specific mutations can have a strong or a relatively mild negative effect on growth. The observation of significant difference in adult height between affected members of the same family indicates that height remains a multifactorial trait even in the presence of a mutation with a strong dominant effect. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Gordon K.,St Georges, University of London | Schulte D.,Hubrecht Institute | Brice G.,SW Thames Regional Genetics Service | Simpson M.A.,Kings College London | And 10 more authors.
Circulation Research | Year: 2013

RATIONALE:: Mutations in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor-3 (VEGFR3 or FLT4) cause Milroy disease, an autosomal dominant condition that presents with congenital lymphedema. Mutations in VEGFR3 are identified in only 70% of patients with classic Milroy disease, suggesting genetic heterogeneity. OBJECTIVE:: To investigate the underlying cause in patients with clinical signs resembling Milroy disease in whom sequencing of the coding region of VEGFR3 did not reveal any pathogenic variation. METHODS AND RESULTS:: Exome sequencing of 5 such patients was performed, and a novel frameshift variant, c.571-572insTT in VEGFC, a ligand for VEGFR3, was identified in 1 proband. The variant cosegregated with the affected status in the family. An assay to assess the biological function of VEGFC activity in vivo, by expressing human VEGFC in the zebrafish floorplate was established. Forced expression of wild-type human VEGFC in the floorplate of zebrafish embryos leads to excessive sprouting in neighboring vessels. However, when overexpressing the human c.571-572insTT variant in the floorplate, no sprouting of vessels was observed, indicating that the base changes have a marked effect on the activity of VEGFC. CONCLUSIONS:: We propose that the mutation in VEGFC is causative for the Milroy disease-like phenotype seen in this family. This is the first time a mutation in one of the ligands of VEGFR3 has been reported to cause primary lymphedema. © 2013 American Heart Association, Inc. Source

Balikova I.,Moorfields Eye Hospital | Balikova I.,Free University of Brussels | Robson A.G.,Moorfields Eye Hospital | Robson A.G.,University College London | And 6 more authors.
Acta Ophthalmologica | Year: 2016

Purpose Microcephaly with or without chorioretinopathy, lymphedema or intellectual disability (MCLID) is an autosomal dominant condition. Mutations in KIF11 have been found to be causative in approximately 75% of cases. This study describes the ocular phenotype in patients with confirmed KIF11 mutations. Methods Standard ophthalmic examination and investigation including visual acuity, refraction and fundus examination was carried out in all patients. Fundus autofluorescence imaging (FAF) was performed in three patients, and four patients underwent spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT). Flash electroretinography (ERG) was performed in seven patients, and five underwent additional pattern electroretinography (PERG). Results The patients ranged in age from 2 to 10 years. Most presented with visual acuity loss. Fundus examination revealed lacunae of chorioretinal atrophy. Pigmentary macular changes and optic disc pallor were present in three of seven patients. Fundus autofluorescence demonstrated hypoautofluorescence at the macula in two of three patients. The lacunae of chorioretinal atrophy were hypoautofluorescent. The OCT showed atrophic maculae in three of four patients. Follow-up in one patient showed no deterioration of the vision over a 9-year period. The lesions appear not to be progressive on the follow-up imaging. Electrophysiology showed generalized rod and cone dysfunction and severe macular dysfunction. Inner retinal dysfunction was evident in three of seven patients. Conclusions Patients with KIF11 mutations show a specific ocular phenotype with variable expressivity and intrafamilial variability. Macular atrophy and dysfunction have not been consistently documented before. The fundus lesions appear non-progressive. The findings assist in providing an accurate diagnosis and thus improving the management and follow-up of patients with this syndrome. © 2015 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

Baple E.L.,University of Exeter | Chambers H.,University of Cambridge | Cross H.E.,University of Arizona | Fawcett H.,University of Sussex | And 20 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Investigation | Year: 2014

Numerous human disorders, including Cockayne syndrome, UV-sensitive syndrome, xeroderma pigmentosum, and trichothiodystrophy, result from the mutation of genes encoding molecules important for nucleotide excision repair. Here, we describe a syndrome in which the cardinal clinical features include short stature, hearing loss, premature aging, telangiectasia, neurodegeneration, and photosensitivity, resulting from a homozygous missense (p.Ser228Ile) sequence alteration of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). PCNA is a highly conserved sliding clamp protein essential for DNA replication and repair. Due to this fundamental role, mutations in PCNA that profoundly impair protein function would be incompatible with life. Interestingly, while the p.Ser228Ile alteration appeared to have no effect on protein levels or DNA replication, patient cells exhibited marked abnormalities in response to UV irradiation, displaying substantial reductions in both UV survival and RNA synthesis recovery. The p.Ser228Ile change also profoundly altered PCNA's interaction with Flap endonuclease 1 and DNA Ligase 1, DNA metabolism enzymes. Together, our findings detail a mutation of PCNA in humans associated with a neurodegenerative phenotype, displaying clinical and molecular features common to other DNA repair disorders, which we showed to be attributable to a hypomorphic amino acid alteration. Source

Brice G.,SW Thames Regional Genetics Service | Ostergaard P.,Human Genetics Research Center | Jeffery S.,Human Genetics Research Center | Gordon K.,St Georges, University of London | And 2 more authors.
Clinical Genetics | Year: 2013

Oculodentodigital syndrome (ODD; OMIM 164200) is a congenital condition with phenotypic features most commonly affecting the face, eyes, dentition and digits. The condition is caused by mutations in the GJA1 gene on chromosome 6. GJA1 codes for connexin 43, a gap junction protein important in providing cell to cell communication and is expressed in lymphatic valves. We present a patient with a clinical and molecular diagnosis of ODD and lower limb lymphoedema. Sanger sequencing of family members confirmed that the missense, p.K206R, GJA1 mutation segregated with the phenotype suggestive of causality. To our knowledge this association has not been reported previously. This is therefore the second connexin gene associated with a lymphoedema phenotype after the recent publication of GJC2 (connexin 47) as a cause of four limb lymphoedema. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

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