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Iwanuma, Japan

Ishikuro M.,Tohoku University | Obara T.,Tohoku University | Metoki H.,Tohoku Medical Megabank Organization | Metoki H.,Tohoku University | And 14 more authors.
Hypertension Research

Parity has previously been reported to affect the difference in blood pressure (BP) measured in the office and at home, also known as the white-coat effect, during pregnancy. The objective of this study was to identify possible factors that cause the white-coat effect during pregnancy, focusing on parity. In total, 530 pregnant women (31.3±4.7 years old) who delivered at a maternal clinic were eligible for the study. The association between parity and the white-coat effect (clinic BP compared with home BP) was investigated for each trimester of pregnancy by multivariate analysis of covariance adjusted for age, body mass index, family history of hypertension and smoking habits. The magnitudes of the white-coat effect for systolic BP in the first, second and third trimesters were 4.1±9.8, 3.4±7.1 and 1.8±6.0 mm Hg, respectively and those for diastolic BP were 3.8±7.4, 1.6±5.8 and 2.4±4.9 mm Hg, respectively. Parity was significantly and negatively associated with the white-coat effect for systolic BP in the first trimester of pregnancy (nulliparous women: 5.07±0.61 mm Hg and multiparous women: 2.78±0.74 mm Hg, P=0.02) as well as for diastolic BP in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. Age, body mass index, family history of hypertension and smoking were not significantly associated with the white-coat effect in any trimester of pregnancy. Parity may have an influence on the white-coat effect in pregnancy; however, the observed effect, on average 1-2 mm Hg, was small. © 2015 The Japanese Society of Hypertension. Source

Satoh M.,Tohoku University | Tanno Y.,Suzuki Memorial Hospital | Hosaka M.,Tohoku University | Metoki H.,Tohoku University | And 7 more authors.
Clinical and Experimental Hypertension

Background: Information regarding salt intake in pregnant women in Japan is limited. An electronic system for the assessment of salt intake using a 24-h dietary recall method has been developed in Japan. The objectives of the present study were to investigate salt intake in pregnant women and to compare the salt intake estimated by the electronic salt intake assessment system with that measured by 24-h urinary salt excretion (24-hUNaCl). Methods: Data were collected on 24-hUNaCl and salt intake estimated by the salt intake assessment system for 35 pregnant Japanese women at approximately 20 weeks of gestation. The adjusted 24-hUNaCl (24-hUNaCl/[the number of urinations during the examination day - the number of missing urine collections] × the number of urinations during the examination day, g/day) was used as a standard. Results: The mean adjusted 24-hUNaCl was 7.7 ± 2.5 g/day, and mean systolic/diastolic blood pressure values were 106.1 ± 8.6/62.8 ± 6.5 mmHg. The adjusted 24-hUNaCl was significantly correlated with the salt intake estimated by the salt intake assessment system (r = 0.47, p = 0.004). Bland-Altman analysis showed no significant mean difference (adjusted 24-hUNaCl - salt intake estimated by the assessment system = -0.36 g/day, p = 0.4) and no significant proportional bias (p = 0.1). Conclusion: These results suggest that pregnant women in Japan restrict their salt intake, at least when they are being examined for salt intake. They also suggest that repeated use of the described system may be useful in estimating salt intake in pregnant women. © 2015 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source

Ishikuro M.,Tohoku University | Obara T.,Tohoku University | Metoki H.,Tohoku University | Ohkubo T.,Tohoku University | And 12 more authors.
American Journal of Hypertension

Background Hypertension during pregnancy can cause serious problems during delivery, such as stroke, premature delivery, or low birthweight. Nulliparity is believed to be a risk factor for hypertension during pregnancy. However, the relationship between parity and blood pressure determined at home during pregnancy is still unknown. Methods We assessed the incidence of gestational hypertension or preeclampsia in 575 nulliparous and multiparous women. Also, we examined blood pressure measured in the clinic and at home among 530 normotensive pregnant women who received antenatal care at a maternity hospital in Japan. Clinic blood pressures (CBPs) were obtained by duplicate measurement at each antenatal care visit. The participants were also required to measure their own blood pressures every morning at home while they were pregnant. A linear mixed model was used for analysis of the blood pressure course throughout pregnancy. Results A total of 315 nulliparous and 215 multiparous women were entered into this study (mean age, 30.1±4.6 years and 33.0±4.1 years, respectively). CBP levels during pregnancy among nulliparous women were significantly higher than among multiparous women (P = 0.02/P <0.0001 for systolic/diastolic blood pressure), whereas there were no significant differences in home blood pressure (HBP) levels during pregnancy between the two groups (P = 0.4/P = 0.2 for systolic/diastolic blood pressure). Conclusions HBP levels during pregnancy were shown not to differ between nulliparous and multiparous women, while CBP levels during pregnancy were higher among nulliparous than among multiparous women. © 2012 American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Kaga A.,Tohoku University | Murotsuki J.,Tohoku University | Kamimura M.,Tohoku University | Kimura M.,Tohoku University | And 5 more authors.
Congenital Anomalies

Achondroplasia and Down syndrome are relatively common conditions individually. But co-occurrence of both conditions in the same patient is rare and there have been no reports of fetal analysis of this condition by prenatal sonographic and three-dimensional (3-D) helical computed tomography (CT). Prenatal sonographic findings seen in persons with Down syndrome, such as a thickened nuchal fold, cardiac defects, and echogenic bowel were not found in the patient. A prenatal 3-D helical CT revealed a large head with frontal bossing, metaphyseal flaring of the long bones, and small iliac wings, which suggested achondroplasia. In a case with combination of achondroplasia and Down syndrome, it may be difficult to diagnose the co-occurrence prenatally without typical markers of Down syndrome. © 2014 Japanese Teratology Society. Source

Iwama N.,Tohoku University | Metoki H.,Tohoku University | Ohkubo T.,Teikyo University | Ishikuro M.,Tohoku University | And 11 more authors.
Hypertension Research

This prospective cohort study compared measurements of maternal home blood pressure (HBP) with clinic blood pressure (CBP) before 20 weeks' gestation to determine associations with the risk of delivering a lower birth weight infant. A total of 605 Japanese women were included. Exposures were initial CBP, made between 10 weeks 0 days and 19 weeks 0 days, and HBP for comparison made within 1 week of CBP. Outcome was infant's birth weight, categorized and ranked as follows: ≥3500 g, 3000-3499 g, 2500-2999 g and <2500 g. The proportional odds model with possible confounding factors was applied to compare the associations between CBP and HBP on infant birth weight. When both CBP and HBP were included simultaneously, the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) per 1 standard deviation (1s.d.) increase in clinic and home diastolic BP (DBP) were 1.06 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.87-1.30) and 1.28 (95% CI: 1.04-1.58), respectively. The adjusted ORs per 1s.d. increase in clinic and home mean arterial pressure (MAP) were 1.02 (95% CI: 0.83-1.24) and 1.29 (95% CI: 1.04-1.59), respectively. Systolic BP measurement was not associated with infant birth weight. In conclusion, high maternal home DBP and MAP before 20 weeks' gestation was associated with a higher risk of lower infant birth weight than clinic DBP and MAP. Therefore, in addition to CBP, it may be worth having pregnant women measure HBP to determine the risk of lower infant birth weight. © 2016 The Japanese Society of Hypertension. All rights reserved. Source

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