Mucuri, Brazil
Mucuri, Brazil

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Ferreira M.A.,Federal University of Lavras | Zauza E.A.V.,Suzano Papel e Celulose | Silva J.F.,Melhoramento Florestal | Colodette J.L.,Federal University of Viçosa | Alfenas A.C.,Federal University of Viçosa
Forest Pathology | Year: 2013

In this study, we determined the effects of Ceratocystis fimbriata wilt on volumetric growth and cellulose pulp yield of eucalyptus. Seven-year-old healthy and infected trees were separated into different classes of severity, and the individual volume of each whole tree with bark was determined. Volumetric losses were found regardless of the class of disease severity, resulting in reduction in volumetric growth of the trees from 65% to 87%, depending on the infection level. Two approaches were used for evaluating the effects of the disease on cellulose pulp yield: (i) evaluation of wood basic density and chemical composition, contents of ethanol/toluene extractives and Klason lignin, and the alkaline load and screen yield across Kraft pulping to kappa number 18 ± 0.5 for both healthy and discoloured materials; (ii) determination of the alkaline load and yield across Kraft pulping to kappa number 18 ± 0.5 of woods with different levels of discoloration (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of discoloured wood). Discoloured wood presented lower basic density, higher ethanol/toluene extractives and Klason lignin, higher alkaline load and lower pulp screened yield at kappa number 18 ± 0.5 compared with the healthy ones. Increasing the fraction of infected wood in chip furnishes resulted in proportionally increased alkaline load demand and decreased screen yields. Adding 50% of infected wood in the chip furnish resulted in 23.8% increase in the alkali load and 13.7% reduction in the pulp screen yield at kappa number 18 ± 0.5. The results obtained have proved that the disease reduces volumetric growth, increases wood consumption and reduces yield in eucalyptus pulp production. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

Zauza E.A.V.,Suzano Papel e Celulose | Lana V.M.,Federal University of Viçosa | Maffia L.A.,Federal University of Viçosa | Araujo M.M.F.C.,Federal University of Viçosa | And 3 more authors.
Forest Pathology | Year: 2015

To identify and implement Puccinia psidii control strategies, it is essential to understand the role of environmental factors on rust-disease development and spread among eucalypt (Eucalyptus spp.) plantations. In this study, we evaluated the wind dispersal of P. psidii urediniospores and the progress of eucalypt rust in a field trial in Brazil. Urediniospores of P. psidii were trapped in a Burkard® spore trap from July 2004 to June 2005. To evaluate the progress of eucalypt rust, plots were established in March 2002 using a clonal hedge scheme. The incidence of both branches and leaves with rust was assessed weekly from February 2003 to October 2005. Disease progress was studied using time-series analysis. Urediniospores were trapped on 77% of the days sampled. The highest average urediniospore concentration was detected from July to November, and most of the urediniospores (58%) were trapped at night. Urediniospore concentration was negatively correlated with rainfall, light intensity, minimum, average and maximum temperatures and wind speed, whereas urediniospore concentration was positively correlated with leaf-wetness duration and relative humidity. From December 2004 to June 2005, average urediniospore concentration was 0.22 spores m-3 air h-1 and had no correlation with meteorological data. The highest average urediniospore concentration was associated with a combination of low average temperature, low light intensity, low wind speed, high relative humidity and high leaf wetness, which reflect conditions observed at night. The disease incidence was positively correlated with the urediniospores trapped at 12 days prior to disease assessment. According to the models obtained by the time series, a seasonal yearly effect was found on rust progress. Using our models, we were also able to forecast disease incidence up to 3 months after the last field assessment. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

Torres C.M.M.E.,Federal University of Viçosa | Jacovine L.A.G.,Federal University of Viçosa | Soares C.P.B.,Federal University of Viçosa | Neto S.N.O.,Federal University of Viçosa | And 2 more authors.
Revista Arvore | Year: 2013

The objectives of this study were to quantify the biomass and carbon storage in a seasonal semideciduous Forest in Viçosa, M G, with an area of 44.11 ha, and to evaluate the differences between the methods of biomass quantification proposed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and by using regional equations. For biomass quantification and carbon storage in the area, were used two different methodologies, one using regional equations and another one suggested by the IPCC. The total biomass and carbon stock were 116.98 t ha-1 and 56.31 t ha-1, respectively, using the methodology of regional equations, considering the values above and below the ground, understory and litter. For the methodology suggested by the IPCC, the total biomass and carbon stock were 107.59 t ha-1 and 48.70 t ha-1, respectively. According to the results, the IPCC methodology underestimated the biomass and carbon stock, in relation to regional equations.

Bouillet J.-P.,Montpellier SupAgro | Bouillet J.-P.,University of Sao Paulo | Laclau J.-P.,Montpellier SupAgro | Laclau J.-P.,University of Sao Paulo | And 15 more authors.
Forest Ecology and Management | Year: 2013

The association of N2-fixing species (NFS) could be an attractive option for achieving a sustainable increase of Eucalyptus plantations (EP) productivity through a positive balance between facilitative effects and competition between species. A randomised block design was replicated at four sites (Cenibra, USP, Suzano and IP) in Southern Brazil and at one site in Congo. The development of mono-specific stands of Acacia mangium (100A) and Eucalyptus grandis or urophylla×grandis (100E), was compared with N fertilisation treatment (100E+N) and with mixed-species plantations in a 1:1 ratio (50A:50E), and in an additive series with varying densities of acacia for the same density of eucalypt (25A:100E, 50A:100E, 100A:100E). The objectives were to assess the effect of mixtures on tree growth and stand production, and the behaviour of the two species in contrasting soil and climatic conditions. Tree growth was monitored over stand rotation and the biomass of aboveground tree components estimated at mid-rotation and at harvesting age. Eucalyptus height was 13% higher in Brazil than in Congo. Favourable ecological conditions in Congo and Cenibra led to 50% higher Acacia tree height than at the other sites. A depressive effect of Eucalyptus neighbour trees on Acacia height and circumference growth, lower in Congo than in Brazil, was observed in the mixtures from age 1-2years onwards. Depressive effects of acacia on eucalypt height and circumference growth were low in USP, Suzano and IP, high in Cenibra, and not observed in Congo, in 50A:50E and 25A:100E. A positive though insignificant response to N fertilisation was only found in USP and Congo. Complementarity for light and soil resource capture between Eucalyptus and Acacia trees resulted in mean annual increments in total stand stemwood biomass (MAI) that were 7-15%, 6-12%, and 40% higher in the additive series than for 100E in Cenibra, USP and Congo, respectively at mid-rotation. Whilst lasting complementarity and facilitation in Congo led to 17-34% higher MAI in mixtures than for 100E at harvesting age, MAIs were not significantly higher in mixtures than for 100E in Brazil. Mixed-species plantations of Eucalyptus and A. mangium might enhance aboveground stand production on poor nutrient soils in warm and humid tropical climates with low water limitations. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Stape J.L.,North Carolina State University | Binkley D.,Colorado State University | Ryan M.G.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Ryan M.G.,Colorado State University | And 14 more authors.
Forest Ecology and Management | Year: 2010

We examined the potential growth of clonal Eucalyptus plantations at eight locations across a 1000+ km gradient in Brazil by manipulating the supplies of nutrients and water, and altering the uniformity of tree sizes within plots. With no fertilization or irrigation, mean annual increments of stem wood were about 28% lower (16.2 Mg ha-1 yr-1, about 33 m3 ha-1 yr-1) than yields achieved with current operational rates of fertilization (22.6 Mg ha-1 yr-1, about 46 m3 ha-1 yr-1). Fertilization beyond current operational rates did not increase growth, whereas irrigation raised growth by about 30% (to 30.6 Mg ha-1 yr-1, about 62 m3 ha-1 yr-1). The potential biological productivity (current annual increment) of the plantations was about one-third greater than these values, if based only on the period after achieving full canopies. The biological potential productivity was even greater if based only on the full-canopy period during the wet season, indicating that the maximum biological productivity across the sites (with irrigation, during the wet season) would be about 42 Mg ha-1 yr-1 (83 m3 ha-1 yr-1). Stands with uniform structure (trees in plots planted in a single day) showed 13% greater growth than stands with higher heterogeneity of tree sizes (owing to a staggered planting time of up to 80 days). Higher water supply increased growth and also delayed by about 1 year the point where current annual increment and mean annual increment intersected, indicating opportunities for lengthening rotations for more productive treatments as well as the influence of year-to-year climate variations on optimal rotations periods. The growth response to treatments after canopy closure (mid-rotation) related well with full-rotation responses, offering an early opportunity for estimating whole-rotation yields. These results underscore the importance of resource supply, the efficiency of resource use, and stand uniformity in setting the bounds for productivity, and provide a baseline for evaluating the productivity achieved in operational plantations. The BEPP Project showed that water supply is the key resource determining levels of plantation productivity in Brazil. Future collaboration between scientists working on silviculture and genetics should lead to new insights on the mechanisms connecting water and growth, leading to improved matching of sites, clones, and silviculture. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Sampaio T.F.,São Paulo State University | Guerrini I.A.,São Paulo State University | Otero X.L.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Vazquez F.M.,University of Santiago de Compostela | And 6 more authors.
Water, Air, and Soil Pollution | Year: 2016

We conducted a field experiment to determine whether application of biosolids (municipal sewage sludge) to degraded areas of the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest had the potential to contaminate native forest species with trace metals in the sandy soils of the region. Treatments consisted of 0, 2.5, 5, 10, 15, and 20 dry Mg biosolids ha-1, with nine native pioneer, secondary, and climax tree species assessed for metal uptake: capixingui, aroeira-pimenteria, canafístula, cedro-rosa, mutamba, angico-vermelho, copaíba, jatobá, and jequitibá. Biosolid application did not have a statistically significant effect on metal concentrations in soil, and Cd was the only metal with increased availability. No increased metal uptake was seen in tree foliage sampled at 6 and 12 months after application. Additional longer-term study is recommended; however, the results of this study indicate biosolids could be used in Atlantic rainforest reclamation in degraded sandy soils with little impact on soil accumulation and tree uptake of trace metals. © 2015 Springer International Publishing Switzerland (outside the USA).

da Silva R.M.L.,International Paper of Brazil Rod | Hakamada R.E.,University of Sao Paulo | Bazani J.H.,4tree Agroflorestal | Otto M.S.G.,4tree Agroflorestal | And 2 more authors.
Forests | Year: 2016

Fertilization increases productivity in Eucalyptus plantations, but losses in productivityassociated with soil fertility continue at operational scales. In this study, we evaluated the fertilizationresponse (FR), light use efficiency (LUE) and growth efficiency (GE), i.e., the amount of wood biomassaccumulated per unit of light absorbed (LUE) and per unit of leaf area index of Eucalyptus plantations.We used a "twin plot" approach, with 161 blocks representing 52,700 ha of planted forests thatspanned a broad range of edaphoclimatic conditions in southeastern Brazil. The normal plots (NP)were part of a permanent inventory network, whereas the twin plots (TP) received extra high levelsof fertilization and extra weed control after fertilization. The intensive management (twin plots) ledto a large increase of 5.3 Mg· ha-1· year-1 of wood increment. The region without dry periods andwith soils with high clay content was most responsive to fertilization, with a 15% increment in theLUE and 10% increase in the GE of the TPs compared with those of the NPs. Our results suggestedthat water availability was the primary element affecting productivity and potential response tofertilization. With this information, decisions can be made on which regions should receive priorityfertilization investments. However, more research is required to determine the most limiting nutrientin each type of environment. © 2016 by the authors.

Goncalves J.L.D.M.,University of Sao Paulo | Alvares C.A.,Institute Pesquisas e Estudos Florestais e FPC | Goncalves T.D.,Fundacao Nacional Do Indio | Moreira R.M.,University of Sao Paulo | And 2 more authors.
Scientia Forestalis/Forest Sciences | Year: 2012

Detailed environmental land characterization is essential for technical and financial planning, for both the scientific point of view and technological application. This work aimed at the physiographic and pedological characterization and eucalyptus productivity mapping at Itatinga Forest Sciences Experimental Station (southeastern Brazil), using geographic information systems in order to identify possible cause-effect relationships between forest productivity and soil attributes. The digital cartographic dataset was structured as follows: as primary source of data, aerial photograph and field survey were used and, as a secondary source, topographical, geological and land use occupation maps were used. For mapping wood productivity at age six (MAI6, Mean Annual Increment), inventory data of permanent plots (same species, provenance and age) were used, which were obtained from Eucalyptus grandis plantations. Using simple linear correlation and backward stepwise multiple regression analysis, the dependent variable (MAI) was related with physical and chemical characteristics of the soils. Two standards of contour curves were identified, one with close curves, narrow and surrounding the drainage network, in the steeper and lower altitude areas; the other, with spaced contour lines, in the areas of higher altitude and with plane relief. Six types of soils were characterized as being highly related to the physiographic patterns of the area: loamy sandy to sandy clayey Typic Hapludox (LVAd, 47.5%), clayey Rhodic Hapludox (LVd1, 33.4%), sandy clay Rhodic Hapludox (LVd2, 6%), clayey Rhodic Hapludox (LVdf, 9.1%), Entisols (G, 3.4%) and Fluvents soil (RY, 0.6%). There were large variations in wood productivity in the Eucalyptus grandis plantations, characterized in six classes, ranging from 26 to 52 m 1 ha -1 yr -1. These productivity changes were strictly related to soil mapping units. Through multiple regression analysis, we found that clay and organic matter contents were the attributes which most strongly explained the productivity differences.

Ryan M.G.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Ryan M.G.,Colorado State University | Stape J.L.,North Carolina State University | Binkley D.,Colorado State University | And 13 more authors.
Forest Ecology and Management | Year: 2010

Wood production varies substantially with resource availability, and the variation in wood production can result from several mechanisms: increased photosynthesis, and changes in partitioning of photosynthesis to wood production, belowground flux, foliage production or respiration. An understanding of the mechanistic basis for patterns in wood production within a stand and across landscapes requires a complete annual carbon budget. We measured annual carbon flows to wood production, foliage production and total belowground carbon flux (the sum of root production, root respiration, and mycorrhizal production and respiration) from ages three to five years in clonal Eucalyptus plantations at four sites in Brazil to test if fertility, water availability and stand structure changed wood production and by what mechanism. We also quantified the patterns in light interception and the efficiency of light use to provide additional mechanistic insights into growth responses and to determine if light-use efficiency was related to changes in flux and partitioning. The routine level of forest fertilization at these four sites was high enough that further increases in nutrient supply did not increase wood growth. Irrigation increased wood net primary productivity (age three to five) from 1.45 to 1.84 kg m-2 year-1 of C (27%), because of increases in light interception (5%), photosynthetic efficiency (from 0.028 to 0.031 mol C/mol photons absorbed, 11%), gross primary productivity (from 3.62 to 4.28 m-2 year-1 of C, 18%), and partitioning to wood (from 0.397 to 0.430 of photosynthesis, 8%). These changes increased light-use efficiency by 20%. Annual flux belowground varied among sites from 0.43 to 1.0 m-2 year-1 of C but did not vary with water availability. Across the four sites for the irrigated and unirrigated treatments, light-use efficiency was positively correlated with gross primary productivity and partitioning to wood production. Increasing heterogeneity of stand structure (resulting from staggered timing of planting within plots) led to a 14% loss in wood biomass relative to uniform stand structure at age six. Light-use efficiency, gross primary productivity, and wood net primary productivity were lower, but not significantly so, in heterogeneous compared to uniform stands.

Manache Facuri R.,Suzano Papel e Celulose | Labigalini Baranovsky A.,Suzano Papel e Celulose | Nappi D.,Metso Paper South America | Rodrigues M.,FLSmidth Minerals
International Chemical Recovery Conference | Year: 2010

Suzano Mucuri expansion project consisted of a new line that increased the mill production by 1.000.000 ADTM/ year of eucalyptus pulp. With this production the new pulp line is one of the biggest single fiber lines in the world in operation. The orders for the main packages were made in November 2005 and the project delivery time was 21 months. One single line white liquor plant with a capacity of 10,000 m 3 WL/d and 900 MTPD lime kiln supports the pulp mill production exceeding one million tons per year. The recausticizing includes state-of-the-art disc filters for green liquor, white liquor and lime mud. It is actually the first recausticizing line with 3 Disc Filters in operation, the so called 3D concept. This concept provides shared spare parts between the filters, common operating principle and more flexibility since the green liquor filter can be also operated as a white liquor filter. The lime kiln is one of the biggest flash dryer kilns at the size of 5 × 125 m. It is equipped with special features for large kilns as the semi-rigid supports and hydraulic thrust roller. The electrostatic precipitator has 2 chambers with space in the layout for a third chamber if needed in the future. The kiln is further equipped with the high efficient COM PAX™burnt lime cooler. In August 2007 the white liquor plant started-up. After six months of operation the plant demonstrated good performance at nominal capacity. The White Liquor Plant has proven to be flexible and easy to operate. It is for example possible with the 3D concept, to operate the white liquor plant with 60% of its nominal capacity, using the green liquor disc filter to produce filtered white liquor.

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