Keller N.,Childrens Hospital Oakland Research Institute |
Bhatia S.,Sutter Pacific Medical Center |
Braden J.N.,Childrens Hospital Oakland Research Institute |
Gildengorin G.,Childrens Hospital Oakland Research Institute |
And 9 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012
Objective: To test the hypothesis that clinical observations made at patient presentation can distinguish type 2 diabetes (T2D) from type 1 diabetes (T1D) in pediatric patients aged 2 to 18. Subjects and Methods: Medical records of 227 African American and 112 Hispanic American pediatric patients diagnosed as T1D or T2D were examined to compare parameters in the two diseases. Age at presentation, BMI z-score, and gender were the variables used in logistic regression analysis to create models for T2D prediction. Results: The regression-based model created from African American data had a sensitivity of 92% and a specificity of 89%; testing of a replication cohort showed 91% sensitivity and 93% specificity. A model based on the Hispanic American data showed 92% sensitivity and 90% specificity. Similarities between African American and Hispanic American patients include: (1) age at onset for both T1D and T2D decreased from the 1980s to the 2000s; (2) risk of T2D increased markedly with obesity. Racial/ethnic-specific observations included: (1) in African American patients, the proportion of females was significantly higher than that of males for T2D compared to T1D (p<0.0001); (2) in Hispanic Americans, the level of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was significantly higher in T1D than in T2D (p<0.002) at presentation; (3) the strongest contributor to T2D risk was female gender in African Americans, while the strongest contributor to T2D risk was BMI z-score in Hispanic Americans. Conclusions: Distinction of T2D from T1D at patient presentation was possible with good sensitivity and specificity using only three easily-assessed variables: age, gender, and BMI z-score. In African American pediatric diabetes patients, gender was the strongest predictor of T2D, while in Hispanic patients, BMI z-score was the strongest predictor. This suggests that race/ethnic specific models may be useful to optimize distinction of T1D from T2D at presentation. © 2012 Keller et al.