Sustainable Forest Management Research Institute UVa INIA

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Sustainable Forest Management Research Institute UVa INIA

Spain
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Rodriguez-Garcia A.,Technical University of Madrid | Martin J.A.,Technical University of Madrid | Lopez R.,Technical University of Madrid | Mutke S.,Japan Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology | Year: 2015

In the last five years, sharp increases in the price of natural resins, accompanied by technological advances directed toward mechanization, have made resin tapping a strategic activity for rural development and forest conservation. The resin industry demands more efficient tapping methods and forest management plans as a way to increase competitiveness in a global market. Understanding the effects of environmental conditions on resin yield, especially under the current scenario of climate change, is key to improving techniques and plans in the resin industry. This study aims to evaluate the intra- and inter-annual effects of climate conditions and soil water availability on resin yield in tapped Pinus pinaster stands. The individual resin yield of 26 tapped trees growing at two locations with different stand densities and soil characteristics was measured fortnightly during the tapping season (June to October) for four years. The study was complemented with an analysis of changes in xylem anatomy over the four years, with a focus on axial resin canal traits, including 12 non-tapped trees as controls. Intra-annual variation in resin yield was strongly correlated with temperature, solar radiation, potential evapotranspiration and water deficit. Inter-annual variation in resin yield and resin canal abundance were correlated with temperature and water deficit in spring, but above a certain threshold of cumulated water deficit in summer rainfall favored resin yield. Under adverse climate scenarios where resource optimization is desirable, a reduced tapping season during the warmest months (June-September) would be advisable, assuming a very small production loss. Similarly, in years with a rainy summer and/or dry spring, a slightly longer tapping season could be suggested, as resin yield increases after these events. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Climent J.,Cifor Instituto Nacional Of Investigacion Y Tecnologia Agraria Y Alimentaria Inia | Climent J.,Sustainable Forest Management Research Institute UVA INIA | Chambel M.R.,Cifor Instituto Nacional Of Investigacion Y Tecnologia Agraria Y Alimentaria Inia | Chambel M.R.,Sustainable Forest Management Research Institute UVA INIA | And 3 more authors.
European Journal of Forest Research | Year: 2011

Rooting space is considered as a resource in plants, but comparative studies on the biomass allocation plasticity in response to rooting volume (RV) are rare. We compared responses in growth, biomass allocation and ontogenetic heteroblasty in nine hard pine species of contrasted ecology. Seedlings were cultivated in containers of 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, 2.8 and 7 L for two growing seasons (425 days). Reduction in RV caused a reduction in plant absolute and relative growth rate and biomass allocated to stems but it increased biomass allocated to roots. RV affected to a lesser extent and in a less consistent direction allocation to leaves. Species that grew faster (higher relative growth rate) had a steeper decrease in growth with the reduction in RV. Ontogenetic heteroblasty, evaluated as the proportion of secondary needles in the needle biomass, showed highly different plasticity patterns in response to RV. Decrease in RV caused negligible or no change either in the most ontogenetically delayed Mediterranean pines or in the most ontogenetically advanced pines, the mesic Pinus sylvestris and P. uncinata. By contrast, ontogenetically intermediate species showed steep reaction norms in response to reduction in RV. While P. pinaster and P. brutia showed marked rejuvenation, P. nigra accelerated the development of adult foliage. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.


Alday J.G.,Sustainable Forest Management Research Institute UVa INIA | Alday J.G.,University of Valladolid | Marrs R.H.,University of Liverpool | Martinez Ruiz C.,Sustainable Forest Management Research Institute UVa INIA | Martinez Ruiz C.,University of Valladolid
Applied Vegetation Science | Year: 2011

Question: How is vegetation succession on coal mine wastes under a Mediterranean climate affected by the restoration method used (topsoil addition or not)? How are plant successional processes influenced by local landscape and soil factors?Location: Reclaimed coal mines in the north of Palencia province, northern Spain (42°47' 42°50' N, 4°32' 4°53' W).Methods: In Jun-Jul 2008, vascular plant species cover was monitored in 31 coal mines. The mines, which had been restored using two restoration methods (topsoil addition or not), comprised a chronosequence of different ages from 1 to 40 yr since restoration started. Soil and environmental factors at each mine were monitored and related to species cover using a combination of ordination methods and Huisman-Olff-Fresco modeling.Results: Plant succession was affected by restoration method Where topsoil was added, succession was influenced by age since restoration and soil pH. Where no topsoil was added, soil factors seem to arrest succession. Vegetation composition on topsoiled sites showed a gradient with age, from the youngest, with early colonizing species, to oldest, with an increase in woody species. Vegetation on non topsoiled sites comprised mainly early successional species. Response to age and pH of 37 species found on topsoiled mines is described.Conclusions: Restoration of coal mines under this Mediterranean climate can be relatively fast if topsoil is added, with a native shrub community developing after 15 yr. However, if topsoil is not used, it takes more than 40 yr. For topsoiled mines, the species found in the different successional stages were identified, and their tolerance to soil pH was derived. This information will assist future restoration projects in the area. © 2010 International Association for Vegetation Science.


Sterba H.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna | Del Rio M.,Sistemas de Gestion | Del Rio M.,Sustainable Forest Management Research Institute UVa INIA | Brunner A.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Condes S.,Technical University of Madrid
Forest Systems | Year: 2014

Aim of study: The aim of this paper is to compare differences in growth per hectare of species in pure and mixed stands as they result from different definitions of species proportions. Area of study: We used the data of the Spanish National Forest Inventory for Scots pine and beech mixtures in the province of Navarra and for Scots pine and Pyrenean oak mixtures in the Central mountain range and the North Iberic mountain range. Material and methods: Growth models were parameterized with the species growth related to its proportion as dependent variable, and dominant height, quadratic mean diameter, density, and species proportion as independent variables. As proportions we use once proportions by basal area or by stand density index and once these proportions considering the species specific maximum densities. Main results: In the pine-beech mixtures, where the maximum densities do not differ very much between species, the mixing effects are very similar, independent of species proportion definitions. In the pine – oak mixture, where the maximum densities in terms of basal area are very different, the equations using the proportions calculated without reference to the maximum densities, result in a distinct overestimation of the mixing effects on growth. Research highlights: When comparing growth per hectare of a species in a mixed stand with that of a pure stand, the species proportion must be described as a proportion by area considering the maximum density for the given species, wrong mixing effects could be introduced by inappropriate species proportion definitions. © 2014 Ministerio de Agricultura Pesca y Alimentacion. All rights reserved.


Sanchez-Gomez D.,Technical University of Madrid | Sanchez-Gomez D.,Sustainable Forest Management Research Institute UVa INIA | Majada J.,SERIDA | Alia R.,SERIDA | And 4 more authors.
Annals of Forest Science | Year: 2010

Interpopulation variation in key functional traits of Pinus pinaster Ait. is well recognized. However, the relative importance of drought tolerance to explain this regional variation in the species remains elusive. Here, we raise the question whether water availability constitutes a likely driver of regional variation in biomass allocation, growth and morphological traits of ten populations that cover the distribution range of P. pinaster. We carried out an experiment where seedlings of five families per population were submitted to two contrasting watering treatments. The effects of water availability and population were significant for relative diameter and height growth rate, biomass allocation and number of lateral stems and dwarf shoots. Total dry mass significantly differed between watering treatments but it did not among populations. Populations could be clustered into four main groups. Root mass fraction explained most of the variation and significantly correlated to altitude but not to aridity.The geographical pattern of genetic variation found in morphology and biomass allocation did not translate into population differences in drought tolerance or phenotypic plasticity to water availability, indicating that water availability is not a likely driver of the regional variation observed in the studied traits of P. pinaster at the seedling stage. © 2010 INRA, EDP Sciences.


del Rio M.,Sistemas de Gestion | del Rio M.,Sustainable Forest Management Research Institute UVa INIA | Schutze G.,TU Munich | Pretzsch H.,TU Munich
Plant Biology | Year: 2014

Facilitation, reduced competition or increased competition can arise in mixed stands and become essential to the performance of these stands when compared to pure stands. Facilitation and over-yielding are widely held to prevail on poor sites, whereas neutral interactions or competition, leading to under-yielding of mixed versus pure stands, can occur on fertile sites. While previous studies have focused on the spatial variation of mixing effects, we examine the temporal variation of facilitation and competition and its effect on growth. The study is based on tree ring measurement on cores from increment borings from 559 trees of Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.), European beech (Fagus sylvatica [L.]) and sessile oak (Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl.) in southern Germany, half of which were in pure stands and half in adjacent mixed stands. Mean basal area growth indices were calculated from tree ring measurements for pure and mixed stands for every species and site. The temporal variation, with positive correlations between species-specific growth indices during periods of low growth and neutral or negative correlations during periods of high growth, is more distinct in mixed than in neighbouring pure stands. We provide evidence that years with low growth trigger over-yielding of trees in mixed as opposed to pure stands, while years with high growth lead to under-yielding. We discuss the relevance of the results in terms of advancing our understanding and modelling of mixed stands, extension of the stress gradient hypothesis, and the performance of mixed versus pure stands in the face of climate change. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.


Alday J.G.,University of Liverpool | Alday J.G.,Sustainable Forest Management Research Institute UVa INIA | Pallavicini Y.,Sustainable Forest Management Research Institute UVa INIA | Pallavicini Y.,University of Valladolid | And 3 more authors.
Plant Ecology | Year: 2011

The development of species richness and plant cover through time are two important measures that are often used to assess success in land reclamation schemes. We expand this approach by considering functional groups in terms of life-history traits and dispersal strategies, as important components of ecosystem function and colonisation. Here, we test, if the species richness and cover of these functional groups are changed during post-treatment succession in 26 reclaimed coal mines, and whether these changes are related to selected soil variables (C:N, total N, and available P). Species richness showed a skewed unimodal response with time since reclamation, with a peak at 13 years. The richness of life-forms showed a clear dominance order starting with annuals, followed by perennial herbs and then woody species; whereas, when plant cover was considered, perennial herbs dominated the entire sequence. Dispersal strategies showed that anemochorous and zoochorous species were the most important groups. Soil variables were correlated with richness and cover of perennial herbs, woody species, and with anemochorous richness and zoochorous species cover. Our findings indicate that those species which respond during succession on reclaimed coal wastes are controlled in some part, by the attributes of functional groups, whereas the colonisation process is more dependent on seed sources from the local species pool than on soil properties. Our results also highlighted that the use of life-forms and dispersal strategy patterns improved the description and prediction of vegetation dynamics, and allowed us to identify successional stages better. We discussed the implication of these findings for future reclamation approaches in similar areas. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Del Rio M.,Japan Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute | Del Rio M.,Sustainable Forest Management Research Institute UVa INIA | Condes S.,Technical University of Madrid | Pretzsch H.,TU Munich
Forest Ecology and Management | Year: 2014

In mixed stands, inter-specific competition can be lower than intra-specific competition when niche complementarity and/or facilitation between species prevail. These positive interactions can take place at belowground and/or aboveground levels. Belowground competition tends to be size symmetric while the aboveground competition is usually for light and almost always size-asymmetric. Interactions between forest tree species can be explored analyzing growth at tree level by comparing intra and inter-specific competition. At the same time, possible causes of niche complementarity can be inferred relating intra and inter-specific competition with the mode of competition, i.e. size-symmetric or size-asymmetric. The aim of this paper is to further our understanding of the interactions between species and to detect possible causes of competition reduction in mixed stands of beech (. Fagus sylvatica L.) with other species: pine-beech, oak-beech and fir-beech. To test whether species growth is better explained by size-symmetric and/or size-asymmetric competition, five different competition structures where included in basal area growth models fitted using data from the Spanish National Forest Inventory for the Pyrenees. These models considered either size-symmetry only (Reineke's stand density index, SDI), size-asymmetry only (SDI of large trees or SDI of small trees), or both combined. In order to assess the influence of the admixture, these indices were introduced in two different ways, one of which was to consider that trees of all species compete in a similar way, and the other was to split the stand density indices into intra- and inter-specific competition components. The results showed that in pine-beech mixtures, there is a slightly negative effect of beech on pine basal area growth while beech benefitted from the admixture of Scots pine this positive effect being greater as the proportion of pine trees in larger size classes increases. In oak-beech mixtures, beech growth was also positively influenced by the presence of oaks that were larger than the beech trees. The growth of oak, however, decreased when the proportion of beech in SDI increased, although the presence of beech in larger size classes promoted oak growth. Finally, in fir-beech mixtures, neither fir nor beech basal area growth were influenced by the presence of the other species. The results indicate that size-asymmetric is stronger than size-symmetric competition in these mixtures, highlighting the importance of light in competition. Positive species interactions in size-asymmetric competition involved a reduction of asymmetry in tree size-growth relationships. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Alday J.G.,University of Liverpool | Alday J.G.,Sustainable Forest Management Research Institute UVa INIA | Marrs R.H.,University of Liverpool | Martinez-Ruiz C.,Sustainable Forest Management Research Institute UVa INIA | Martinez-Ruiz C.,University of Valladolid
Plant and Soil | Year: 2012

Aims: Little is known about how soil parameters change during early stages of revegetation dynamics on newly-restored coal mines, particularly in a Mediterranean climate. Our aim was to explore the short-term interactions of changes in soil physico-chemical properties and vegetation succession (composition and structure) in these newly-forming ecosystems, and discuss potential functional relationships. Methods: Between 2004 and 2009, we monitored soil and vegetation changes in nine permanent plots (20 m 2 each one) at a restored open-pit coal mine annually; these plots were set up in a structured way to account for site aspect (north, south and flat). We used linear mixed models and multivariate analysis to derive patterns of soil parameters changes through time and to relate soil variables with vegetation structure or floristic compositional changes. Results: Soil variables showed a general trend over time of increasing soil organic matter, total carbon and nitrogen, sand content and exchangeable calcium, but a reduction in soil pH, clay and lime contents, whereas electrical conductivity, P, Mg 2+ and K + showed no change through time. More importantly, these changes in soil properties were independent of aspect, whereas vegetation functional/structural changes were related to the accumulation of organic matter and sand content, and pH reduction. Surprisingly, floristic compositional changes had little relationship with soil factors. Conclusions: The results indicate that age since restoration was the main driving agent, at least in the short-term, of soil and vegetation compositional changes during ecosystem development through the restoration of a coal mine, whereas vegetation functional/structural changes are involved in the mechanism that induce some soil changes, favouring the increase of plant community complexity in such mined areas. Finally, these results suggest that if soil-forming material is sufficiently good for vegetation development, floristic compositional differences are mainly driven by a combination of abiotic and stochastic factors in the short-term. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Rodriguez-Garcia E.,University of Valladolid | Rodriguez-Garcia E.,Sustainable Forest Management Research Institute UVA INIA | Juez L.,University of Valladolid | Juez L.,Sustainable Forest Management Research Institute UVA INIA | And 2 more authors.
European Journal of Forest Research | Year: 2010

Research on natural regeneration is crucial for the development of sustainable forestry practices, in light of the global climate changes taking place. In this study, 151 plots were sampled in six Pinus pinaster stands that were naturally regenerated by the seed-tree method in Mediterranean forests in central Spain. The objectives of the survey were to study the suitability of different forest stands designated for natural regeneration as well as to analyse seedling establishment and the relationship between regeneration and different site factors. Analysis of variance and multivariate analysis with canonical ordination techniques were employed. Full and partial redundancy analyses on a correlation matrix were used to carry out a direct gradient analysis of regeneration density as a function of site factors. Nearly all stands presented seedling densities over 2,000 seedlings ha-1 and were thus found to be suitable for natural regeneration of Pinus pinaster by the seed-tree selection method. Significant variables that best explained total seedling and viable seedling density were spring and autumn precipitation of the year prior to establishment, spring and summer precipitation of the year of establishment and percentage cover of litter. There were no signs of competition between shrubs and seedlings, but a negative significant correlation with grass cover was observed. Pinus pinaster natural regeneration was successful with the seed-tree method, although it appeared to be highly dependent on climate and stand conditions. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

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