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Bailey M.,University of British Columbia | Flores J.,Sustainable Fisheries Partnership | Pokajam S.,National Fisheries Authority | Sumaila U.R.,University of British Columbia
Ocean and Coastal Management | Year: 2012

Indonesia, the Philippines, and Papua New Guinea, all part of a regional sub-group known as the Coral Triangle, have sizeable skipjack, yellowfin and bigeye tuna fisheries. Recent figures suggest that as much as a third of tuna catch from the western and central Pacific Ocean can be attributed to the fleets of these countries. Historically, however, little attention has been paid to their fisheries and their regulations. Management of tuna fisheries in Indonesia and the Philippines faces many challenges, including bycatch of juveniles, lack of effective gear restrictions, subsidized fleets, and unreported catches. Papua New Guinea has countered the challenges of tuna management with several effective measures, including implementing the vessel day scheme, a type of effort quota system, and limiting the use of fish aggregating devices (FADs). This paper compares and contrasts tuna fisheries in the three countries, as well as their management regimes and current management challenges. By highlighting some of the successes that Papua New Guinea has had, we hope that Indonesia and the Philippines may be able to more effectively manage their fleets and their fish. And this in turn may lead to better regional management of a valuable transboundary resource. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Portley N.,Sustainable Fisheries Partnership | Portley N.,Saint Hubert Research Group | Geiger H.J.,Saint Hubert Research Group
North American Journal of Fisheries Management | Year: 2014

"Limit reference points" define a state at which fishery management has reached overfishing, overfished stock status, or some other regulatory or conservation point of concern. In many Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. fishery jurisdictions, management only uses "target reference points"-the specific numerical management objective intended to bring about some fishery benefit. There are several reasons to adopt limit reference points, and jurisdictions without previously defined limit reference points could adopt them in order to align better with the Magnuson-Stevens Act (American fisheries) or, more importantly, to facilitate cross-jurisdiction sustainability assessments, which are increasingly needed for certifications of sustainability. In actual practice, the stock size of 0.5 times a target reference point has been used as a limit reference point for some Pacific salmon fisheries, or at least as a proxy for a limit reference point. We term this point the "minimum stock size threshold," following a convention already in use, and we note that limit reference points defined this way are increasingly being accepted as a standard either because of justification based on simulation and fishery principles or for purely pragmatic reasons.Received July 2, 2013; accepted January 6, 2014. © 2014 © American Fisheries Society 2014.

Willette D.A.,University of California at Los Angeles | Santos M.D.,National Fisheries Research and Development Institute | Leadbitter D.,Sustainable Fisheries Partnership
Journal of Applied Ichthyology | Year: 2016

Genetic stock structure is atypical in tuna species, with most species demonstrating geographically-broad, panmictic populations. Here, genetic data suggest a distinct pattern for Thunnus tonggol across the Indo-Pacific region. The genetic variation in the coastal tuna T. tonggol sampled from across the South China Sea was examined using the highly variable mitochondrial DNA displacement loop (D-loop) gene region. One hundred and thirty-nine specimens were sampled from four locations in Indonesia, Vietnam and the Philippines. Phylogenetic reconstruction of genetic relationships revealed no significant ΦST statistics and hence no population structure within the South China Sea. However, subsequent analysis with sequence data from coastal northwest India infers discrete genetic stocks between the Indian Ocean and the South China Sea. Consistent with previous genetic analyses of tuna species in the Indo-Pacific, the findings in this study infer no population structure within each basin, but rather show a significant partitioning across the wider region. Furthermore, these results have implications for the management of the commercially valuable Thunnus tonggol across national boundaries, and thus requiring collaboration among countries to ensure its sustainable use. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

Anderson J.L.,University of Florida | Anderson C.M.,University of Washington | Chu J.,The World Bank | Meredith J.,University of Washington | And 22 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Pursuit of the triple bottom line of economic, community and ecological sustainability has increased the complexity of fishery management; fisheries assessments require new types of data and analysis to guide science-based policy in addition to traditional biological information and modeling.We introduce the Fishery Performance Indicators (FPIs), a broadly applicable and flexible tool for assessing performance in individual fisheries, and for establishing cross-sectional links between enabling conditions, management strategies and triple bottom line outcomes. Conceptually separating measures of performance, the FPIs use 68 individual outcome metrics-coded on a 1 to 5 scale based on expert assessment to facilitate application to data poor fisheries and sectors-that can be partitioned into sectorbased or triple-bottom-line sustainability-based interpretative indicators. Variation among outcomes is explained with 54 similarly structured metrics of inputs, management approaches and enabling conditions. Using 61 initial fishery case studies drawn from industrial and developing countries around the world, we demonstrate the inferential importance of tracking economic and community outcomes, in addition to resource status. © 2015, Public Library of Science. All rights reserved.

Pitcher T.J.,University of British Columbia | Lam M.E.,University of British Columbia | Ainsworth C.,University of South Florida | Martindale A.,University of British Columbia | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Fish Biology | Year: 2013

This paper reports recent developments in Rapfish, a normative, scalable and flexible rapid appraisal technique that integrates both ecological and human dimensions to evaluate the status of fisheries in reference to a norm or goal. Appraisal status targets may be sustainability, compliance with a standard (such as the UN code of conduct for responsible fisheries) or the degree of progress in meeting some other goal or target. The method combines semi-quantitative (e.g. ecological) and qualitative (e.g. social) data via multiple evaluation fields, each of which is assessed through scores assigned to six to 12 attributes or indicators: the scoring method allows user flexibility to adopt a wide range of utility relationships. For assessing sustainability, six evaluation fields have been developed: ecological, technological, economic, social, ethical and institutional. Each field can be assessed directly with a set of scored attributes, or several of the fields can be dealt with in greater detail using nested subfields that themselves comprise multidimensional Rapfish assessments (e.g. the hierarchical institutional field encompasses both governance and management, including a detailed analysis of legality). The user has the choice of including all or only some of the available sustainability fields. For the attributes themselves, there will rarely be quantitative data, but scoring allows these items to be estimated. Indeed, within a normative framework, one important advantage with Rapfish is transparency of the rigour, quality and replicability of the scores. The Rapfish technique employs a constrained multidimensional ordination that is scaled to situate data points within evaluation space. Within each evaluation field, results may be presented as a two-dimensional plot or in a one-dimensional rank order. Uncertainty is expressed through the probability distribution of Monte-Carlo simulations that use the c.l. on each original observation. Overall results of the multidisciplinary analysis may be shown using kite diagrams that compare different locations, time periods (including future projections) and management scenarios, which make policy trade-offs explicit. These enhancements are now available in the R programming language and on an open website, where users can run Rapfish analyses by downloading the software or uploading their data to a user interface. © 2013 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

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