Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland

Dublin, Ireland

Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland

Dublin, Ireland
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Clancy J.M.,Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland | Clancy J.M.,University College Cork | Gaffney F.,Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland | Gaffney F.,University of Aalborg | And 4 more authors.
Energy Policy | Year: 2015

Several electricity systems supply significant proportions of electricity from weather dependent renewable sources. Different quantification methods have estimated the associated historical savings of fuel and CO2 emissions. Primary energy equivalent and econometric methods do not readily quantify factors like operational changes to fossil fuel generation arising from the integration renewable energy. Dispatch models can overcome these limitations, but are generally applied to future scenarios. A dispatch model is applied to ex-post data for the 2012 All Island system in Ireland. Renewable electricity accounted for 20.4% of total generation, 15.8% from wind. The results show renewable generation averted a 26% increase in fossil fuels (valued at €297 million) and avoided an 18% increase in CO2 emissions (2.85MtCO2), as compared to the simulated 2012 system without renewable generation. Wind averted 20% increase in fossil fuel generation and a 14% increase in CO2 emissions (2.33MtCO2). Each MWh of renewable electricity avoided on average 0.43tCO2 with wind avoiding 0.46tCO2/MWh. Additional renewable related balancing requirements had minor impacts on fossil fuel generation efficiency; CO2 production rates increased by <2%. Policy measures to alleviate network congestion, increase system flexibility and increase financial penalties on emissions can increase savings from renewable generation. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


News Article | November 12, 2015
Site: phys.org

Ireland's tax arrangements with the US tech giant are under investigation by the EU to see if there was a deal to secure jobs that amounts to illegal state aid, and a judgement is expected soon. "I can't say I know for sure what they'll come back with," Cook said from Apple's European headquarters in Ireland's second city, Cork, where he announced the extra jobs would be in place by mid-2017. "I believe strongly that Ireland will be found that there was nothing wrong done and therefore Apple by connection," he told national broadcaster RTE in an interview broadcast Wednesday night. "If there's an adverse ruling, Ireland is going to appeal and we're going to support them because there was no special deal, there was no special arrangement." Apple has had a base at the southern city of Cork since 1980 and employs 5,000 people in Ireland. Cook announced earlier on Wednesday that the figure would increase to 6,000 over the next 18 months. "That's almost a quarter of our European workforce and we're continuing to expand our facility there as well, which is our largest in Europe," Cook said in a lecture earlier Wednesday at Trinity College Dublin university. Irish Prime Minister Enda Kenny, said the jobs plan was a sign of Ireland's economic recovery broadening and called it "a very welcome boost of confidence". Apple was one of the first global tech firms to set up in Ireland and has been followed by many top names such as Twitter, Microsoft and Google, earning the country the moniker "Europe's Silicon Valley". Many US companies looking for a European base are drawn by Ireland's English-speaking skilled workforce and its highly competitive tax rates, which have drawn controversy. Cook said the European headquarters was "our most diverse offices on the planet, operationally and culturally". "In our offices in Cork you are as likely to hear a French accent or a German or an Italian accent as you are to hear an accent from County Cork," he said. Apple will be expanding its campus to accomodate the new employees. It has invested nearly 130 million euros ($140 million) in the site since 2012. Beyond its employees, the IDA Ireland foreign direct investment agency estimates that Apple supports a further 13,000 jobs in the republic. Apple also announced it was partnering with the Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland to support research in offshore energy technology. The EU's investigation into the company's tax deal with Ireland is one of several probes launched last year after the "Luxleaks" scandal broke over Amazon's sweetheart tax deals with Luxembourg. On Wednesday, online retailer Amazon, search engine giant Google and social network Facebook all said they will testify at the European Parliament next week on the issue of tax breaks for big businesses. Last month Brussels ordered Starbucks and Fiat to each repay up to 30 million euros ($34 million) in back taxes for deals they had with the Netherlands and Luxembourg. Tax deals between EU member states and companies are not in themselves illegal and the firms involved insist they fully comply with the tax laws where they operate. But they have run afoul of the European Commission's tough rules on state aid, which are designed to ensure fair competition. It argues that the deals unfairly benefit bigger companies at the expense of smaller, often less influential rivals. Explore further: Apple to create 500 jobs in Ireland


News Article | November 11, 2015
Site: phys.org

Apple has had a base at the southern city of Cork since 1980 and employs 5,000 people in Ireland. "We're expanding that to over 6,000 across the next year and a half," Cook said in a lecture at Trinity College Dublin university. "That's almost a quarter of our European workforce and we're continuing to expand our facility there as well, which is our largest in Europe." Cook met with Irish Prime Minister Enda Kenny, who said the jobs plan was a sign of Ireland's economic recovery broadening. "Apple's plans for new facilities at their Cork campus that can house a further 1,000 jobs is a very welcome boost of confidence," he said. "This continued expansion by the company is testament to the quality of the talent pool, the infrastructure and the business environment that this country has to offer and further cements Apple as one of the leading employers in Ireland." European Affairs and Data Protection Minister Dara Murphy added in a statement: "I am delighted that the fruits of recovery are now being felt not just in the Dublin area, but around the country." Cook will be visiting Apple employees at its main office, perched on a hill overlooking Ireland's second city of Cork. Apple was one of the first tech firms to set up in Ireland and has been followed by many top names such as Twitter, Microsoft and Google, earning the country the moniker "Europe's Silicon Valley". Many US companies looking for a European base are drawn by Ireland's English-speaking skilled workforce and its highly competitive tax rates, which have drawn controversy. Cook said the European headquarters was "our most diverse offices on the planet, operationally and culturally". "In our offices in Cork you are as likely to hear a French accent or a German or an Italian accent as you are to hear an accent from County Cork," he said. Apple will be expanding its campus to accomodate the new employees. It has invested nearly 130 million euros ($140 million) in the site since 2012. Beyond its employees, the IDA Ireland foreign direct investment agency estimates that Apple supports a further 13,000 jobs in the republic. Apple also announced it was partnering with the Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland to support research in offshore energy technology. "This will support innovative new ways of capturing wave energy and converting it to renewable electricity in support of their global commitment to powering all facilities with renewable energy," IDA Ireland said. Apple is still awaiting the European Union's judgement on its tax deal with Ireland. Tax deals between EU member states and companies are not in themselves illegal and the firms involved insist they fully comply with the tax laws where they operate. But they have run afoul of the European Commission's tough rules on state aid, which are designed to ensure fair competition. It argues that the deals unfairly benefit bigger companies at the expense of smaller, often less influential rivals. Explore further: Apple to create 500 jobs in Ireland


Kennedy M.,Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland | Basu B.,Trinity College Dublin
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2013

The paper critically reviews and explores the impact of renewable energy heat policies to induce technological change in Ireland. It is in response to the challenge of better understanding the broad effects and attributes of renewable energy policy instruments in Ireland and beyond. Using the Irish residential sector as a case study, and analysing data of more than 31,600 technology installations under the Irish Government's Greener Homes Scheme [GHS], the paper assesses the extent to which policy makers may be informed of the willingness of consumers to adopt these technologies in their homes. In doing so, it attempts to provide valuable guidance for policy evaluation in relation to renewable energy in the residential sector. It represents investment decisions and technological choice by the end user and reflects the growing concern among energy policy markets regarding the representation of user preferences. The overall intent is to investigate the implications of analysing different variables and their contribution to making more balanced renewable energy policies. It provides a critical analysis of the Greener Homes Scheme, the key instrument for implementing Ireland's renewable heating policy from 2006 to 2010, established to induce technological change within the residential sector. In assessing the impact of the Scheme, attention focuses on decision frameworks for technological choice and the treatment of market and behavioural failures. It considers how consumers have responded to new technological policies aimed at deploying renewable heat technologies, and the specific policies aimed at advancing certain technologies over others. Through a case study investigation, the paper explores the relationship and dependencies that influence consumers' decision-making regarding the choice of renewable energy heating technologies in the domestic sector in Ireland. Consumer preferences and their subsequent investment decisions, motives and technological choice are reflected. It concludes that while economic factors are important, a much broader variety of determinants is required when analysing the process of adoption of technology. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Scheer J.,Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland | Clancy M.,Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland | Hogain S.N.,Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland
Energy Efficiency | Year: 2013

This paper quantifies the energy savings realised by a sample of participants in the Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland's Home Energy Saving (HES) residential retrofit scheme (currently branded as the Better Energy Homes scheme), through an ex post billing analysis. The billing data are used to evaluate: (1) the reduction in gas consumption of the sample between pre- (2008) and post- (2010) scheme participation when compared to the gas consumption of a control group, (2) an estimate of the shortfall when this result is compared to engineering-type ex ante savings estimates and (3) the degree to which these results may apply to the wider population. All dwellings in the study underwent energy efficiency improvements, including insulation upgrades (wall and/or roof), installation of high-efficiency boilers and/or improved heating controls, as part of the HES scheme. Metered gas use data for the 210 households were obtained from meter operators for a number of years preceding dwelling upgrades and for a post-intervention period of 1 year. Dwelling characteristics and some household behavioural data were obtained through a survey of the sample. The gas network operator provided anonymised data on gas usage for 640,000 customers collected over the same period as the HES sample. Dwelling type data provided with the population dataset enabled matching with the HES sample to increase the internal validity of the comparison between the control (matched population data) and the treatment (HES sample). Using a difference-in-difference methodology, the change in demand of the sample was compared with that of the matched population subset of gas-using customers in Ireland over the same time period. The mean reduction in gas demand as a result of energy efficiency upgrades for the HES sample is estimated as 21 % or 3,664 ± 603 kWh between 2008 and 2010. An ex ante estimate of average energy savings, based on engineering calculations (u value reductions and improved boiler efficiency and use through heating controls), suggests a technical reduction potential of 5,676 kWh per dwelling. Equating this with the gas reduction in the sample suggests a shortfall of approximately 36 ± 8 % between technical potential and measured savings. This shortfall includes the effects of direct and indirect rebound effects, variations in ex ante assumptions and achieved u values and efficiencies for upgraded dwellings. The profile of household characteristics in the HES sample is influenced by the self-selected nature of scheme participants. Self-selection bias and other possible biases in the sample data impact on the validity of the comparison. Data limitations for individual households across explanatory variables in the control and treatment groups precluded corrections for these biases in the sample; however, the profiles of separate comparable data sets were used where possible to quantify the differences in the explanatory variables and how these might impact on the measured energy saving with reference to the relevant effects identified in the literature. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Kennedy M.,Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland | Basu B.,Trinity College Dublin
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2013

Through a case study investigation, this paper critically reviews and explores the impact of a number of projects within developing and emerging economies that are advancing low carbon technologies. It is in response to the challenge of better understanding the broad effect of imperfections and barriers that may alter the acceleration of such technologies. In analysing the impact of a number of projects, it highlights the challenges that projects are encountering and attempts to provide some valuable guidance for policy makers. The paper considers the realms of regulatory, institutional, financial and information frameworks that may prevent the accelerated development of markets for low carbon technologies. It concludes that such barriers have implications for energy policy and presents some lessons and potential actions that can aid policy makers, market actors and technology innovators in understanding the transfer and deployment of low carbon technologies. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Kennedy M.,Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland | Basu B.,Trinity College Dublin
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2014

This paper examines the complexity of the current negotiations to avert climate change under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Drawing on economic game theory modelling, it interprets the latest developments within the international negotiations and provides a political economy analysis of the climate change architecture. It places the pursuit of international co-operation, via the Kyoto Protocol's second commitment period, in the context of a country's maintenance of national interest and a flexible emissions abatement strategy. Accepting that countries will reject an international agreement or obligation that is seen as inimical to their economic competitiveness, it incorporates a new game theory model, considers how learning from such models can influence agreement design and proposes a new approach from a non-monotonic polluting payoff function. Attention is placed on enabling conditions that entice countries to ratify a climate agreement, thereby encouraging participation and accelerating a near term deployment of low carbon technologies. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Kennedy M.,Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland | Dinh V.-N.,Galway Technology Park | Dinh V.-N.,Trinity College Dublin | Basu B.,Trinity College Dublin
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2016

Through a modelling-based contribution, this paper critically reviews and explores the impact of low carbon heat policies to induce technological policy development. The paper interrogates an Irish government funded sustainable energy financed scheme (the 'Greener Homes Scheme'), launched in 2006 and aimed at the deployment of low carbon technology in the residential sector. This paper analyses 31,560 technology installations supported under this scheme and it utilises artificial neural network modelling as a method of better analysing and understanding the effects, relationships and dependencies that influence consumer decision making and responses to new technological policies. It is responding to a perceived limited understanding of the variables that influence a wider adoption of low carbon technologies and the opportunities and potential that could result in a wider appreciation of the broader impact of market barriers. It builds up on the artificial neural networks modelling work, explores its application in pattern recognition and interprets its influence in predicting customer behaviour. The paper provides an enhanced understanding of the various factors that influence consumer selection of one low carbon technology over another. Evaluation of the results revealed that the developed artificial neural network model (generic 7-6-4 neurons layered architecture) is the most appropriate tool and suitable network in predicting indices, based on certain social conditions, on the choice of certain low carbon technologies. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Ascoop J.,Arup | Fielding M.,ESB International | O'Mahony B.,Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland
Innovative Coastal Zone Management: Sustainable Engineering for a Dynamic Coast - 7th International Coastal Management Conference | Year: 2012

The development of a full scale, grid connected, wave energy test site by the Irish government is providing an opportunity to learn, for everyone involved in ocean energy. The sharing of knowledge that is at the heart of this project has helped to identify and make known a range of issues that can now be addressed in advance of these becoming bottlenecks to the successful generation of electricity from wave energy. This paper describes the process of designing and consenting to the Atlantic Marine Energy Test Site (AMETS) in Belmullet. It provides and insight into the extensive site investigations required to establish the test areas and cable routes and it describes the particular challenges encountered at this extreme weather location.


News Article | November 11, 2015
Site: www.treehugger.com

In the past few years - ever since Tim Cook became CEO, really - Apple has been cleaning up its act on the environmental front. They've eliminated many toxins from their products, made them more recyclable, and have invested big bucks into clean energy and conservation. They have multiple solar installations, with more under construction, and have bought a forest the size of San Francisco in the US and will protect 1 million acres in China. They are also the big tech company that is furthest along in converting to 100% clean energy. Even Greenpeace is praising their "environmental leadership". The fruit company seems to prefer solar power so far, and that makes sense since it is a clean energy source that is rapidly maturing and falling in price, and has gigantic untapped potential. But it never hurts to hedge your bets and look into other things, and that's exactly what they did. Apple and the Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland (SEAI) will work together to help wave power R&D in Ireland. Apple has committed a €1 million fund that will help developers who receive an SEAI grant to test their ocean energy prototypes in the Galway Bay Ocean Energy Test Site (pictured above). “The west coast of Ireland is recognised as having some of the best wave resources in the world and I warmly welcome this agreement between Apple and SEAI to help harness this renewable source of energy. This is an excellent achievement for Ireland and shows that when it comes to ocean energy development, Ireland is definitely open for business," said Alex White, Ireland's Minister for Communication, Energy and Natural Resources. On Apple's side, Lisa Jackson, who serves as Apple's vice president of Environment, Policy and Social Initiatives, but is best known as the former head of the EPA, said: “We're excited by the potential of ocean energy to someday serve as a source of clean power for the data centre we are building in Athenry, County Galway. We are deeply committed to powering all our facilities with 100 percent renewable energy and believe investing in innovative projects will make reaching our goal easier." The Galway Bay test site was created in 2006 by the SEAI and the Marine Institute. It is used for ¼-scale prototypes of wave energy devices. Apple has also invested to varying degrees in wind, biogas fuel cell, hydroelectric, and geothermal power.

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