Zorpas A.A.,Sustainable Development Technology |
Costa C.N.,Cyprus University of Technology
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2010
Co-composting of olive oil solid residue (OOSR) and treated wastewaters (with Fenton) from the olive oil production process has been studied as an alternative method for the treatment of wastewater containing high organic and toxic pollutants in small olive oil industry in Cyprus. The experimental results indicated that the olive mill wastewater (OMW) is detoxified at the end of Fenton Process and the COD is reduced up to 70%. The final co-composted material of OOSR with the treated olive mile wastewater (TOMW) is presented with optimum characteristics and is suitable for agricultural purpose. The final product coming out from an in-Vessel reactor seems to mature faster than the product from the windrow system and is presented with a better soil conditioner. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.
Ingwersen W.W.,Sustainable Development Technology
Journal of Industrial Ecology | Year: 2011
Founded in thermodynamics and systems ecology, emergy evaluation is a method to associate a product with its dependencies on all upstream environmental and resource flows using a common unit of energy. Emergy is thus proposed as an indicator of aggregate resource use for life cycle assessment (LCA). An LCA of gold mining, based on an original life cycle inventory of a large gold mine in Peru, is used to demonstrate how emergy can be incorporated as an impact indicator into a process-based LCA model. The results demonstrate the usefulness of emergy in the LCA context. The adaptation of emergy evaluation, traditionally performed outside of the LCA framework, requires changes to the conventional accounting rules and the incorporation of uncertainty estimations of the emergy conversion factors, or unit emergy values. At the same time, traditional LCA boundaries are extended to incorporate the environmental processes that provide for raw resources, including ores. The total environmental contribution to the product, doré, is dominated by mining and metallurgical processes and not the geological processes forming the gold ore. The measure of environmental contribution to 1 gram (g) of doré is 6.8E + 12 solar-equivalent Joules (sej) and can be considered accurate within a factor of 2. These results are useful in assessing a process in light of available resources, which is essential to measuring long-term sustainability. Comparisons are made between emergy and other measures of resource use, and recommendations are made for future incorporation of emergy into LCA that will result in greater consistency with existing life cycle inventory (LCI) databases and other LCA indicators. © 2011 by Yale University.
Filatova T.,Deltares |
Filatova T.,Sustainable Development Technology
Environmental Science and Policy | Year: 2014
Climate change creates challenges for developments in coastal and delta areas. The risks are reduced more effectively if both planned and autonomous adaptations take place. Flood risk management is dominated by planned adaptation, which is primarily command-and-control in nature, e.g. spatial planning and engineered flood defenses. If autonomous adaptation is downplayed people are more likely to make land-use choices that collectively lead to increasing flood risks while leaving the costs of adaptation and land scarcity with governments. Unless governments provide stimuli, autonomous adaptation in flood-prone areas is unlikely to happen due to spatial externalities, path-dependency and time lag between private investment decisions and consequences. This paper reviews the theory and practice of using market-based instruments (MBIs) for flood-risk management as means for autonomous climate change adaptation. While the use of MBIs for climate change mitigation is widely discussed, systematized reviews of various MBIs for climate change adaptation are rare. Yet, international experience shows that such measures as preferential taxes, non-perverse subsidies, flood insurance, marketable permits and transferable development rights can engage local stakeholders and provide price signals that stimulate individual adaptation. MBIs combined with command-based instruments help policy-makers to guide developments in flood-prone zone by affecting individual behavior via market forces. As adverse consequences of climate change become more pronounced locally, quantity-based MBIs unfeasible at present should become more attractive. Price-based MBIs that are currently employed could be designed to strategically account for increasing climate-induced flood and erosion probabilities in coastal and delta areas. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Hoppe T.,Sustainable Development Technology
Energy Policy | Year: 2012
Thanks to new insights on the impacts that dwellings have throughout their life cycles, there has been increased attention to retrofitting innovative energy systems (IES) in existing housing. This paper uses an explorative case study design to gain more knowledge about the governance aspects of this under-researched topic. The central research question is: Which factors influence the adoption of innovative energy systems in social housing sites during renovation projects? To answer this question, eight large-scale renovation projects in The Netherlands were investigated. These case studies allowed the identification of barriers, enabling factors and perspectives from three main actors-housing associations, tenants and local authorities. It turns out that adopting IES encounters many barriers: lack of trust between project partners, delay in project progress, financial feasibility considerations, lack of support from tenants, lengthy legal permit procedures, over-ambitious project goals, poor experiences in previous projects, and IES ambitions that are not taken serious by key decision-makers. Furthermore, IES were only successfully fitted in three of the eight projects. Moreover, ambitions were lowered as the projects progressed in all the cases investigated. The study calls for further systematic, in-depth comparison of fitting IES in large-scale renovation projects in social housing. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Boren T.,Sustainable Development Technology
International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment | Year: 2010
Background: l-lactide is the monomer for the polymer poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA). PLLA can be made from renewable resources, and is used in an increasing amount of applications. The biopolymer PLLA is one type of polymer of the family of polylactic acids (PLAs). Purac produces l-lactide and d-lactide, and supports partners with know-how to produce their own PLA from lactide. This life cycle assessment (LCA) study supporting market development presents the eco-profile of lactides and PLA biopolymers. Method: An LCA was carried out for l-lactide, d-lactide, PLLA, and two PLLA/PDLA blends made from cane sugar in Thailand, and were compared with that of fossil-based polymers. The LCA complies with ISO standards, and is a cradle-to-gate analysis including sugarcane cultivation, sugarcane milling, auxiliary chemicals production, transport, and production of lactide and PLAs. In the analysis, process data were taken from the designs of full-scale plants for the production of lactic acid, lactides, and PLA. The data were combined with ecoprofiles of chemicals and utilities and recalculated to the following environmental impacts: primary renewable and non-renewable energy, non-renewable abiotic resource usage, farm land use, global warming, acidification, photochemical ozone creation, human toxicity, and eutrophication. Results and discussion: On a weight-by-weight basis, PLLA results in significantly lower emissions of greenhouse gasses, and less use of material resources and non-renewable energy, compared to fossil-based polymers. With the present calculations, the Global Warming Potential (GWP) in l-lactide production is 300-600 kg CO2 eq./tonne and for PLLA 500-800 kg CO2 eq./tonne. The range indicates the sensitivity of the GWP to the energy credit for electricity production from bagasse in the sugar mill. The GWP of PLLA/PDLA blends with increased heat resistance is also lower compared to fossil based polymers with similar durable character. Being based on an agricultural system the biobased PLA gives rise to higher contributions to acidification, photochemical ozone creation, eutrophication, and farm land use compared to the fossil polymers. Conclusions: The application spectrum of PLAs is expanding, and there are opportunities to replace various fossil-based polymers. This facilitates climate change mitigation and reduces dependence on fossil and scarce resources while promoting the use of local and renewable resources. It is evident that in emerging green economies agricultural technology will form an integral part in the changeover towards a more sustainable industry and society. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.