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Younas A.,University of Peshawar | Hilber I.,ART Agroscope Reckenholz Tanikon | ur Rehman S.,University of Peshawar | Khwaja M.,Sustainable Development Policy Institute SDPI | Bucheli T.D.,ART Agroscope Reckenholz Tanikon
Environmental Science and Pollution Research | Year: 2013

A factory in Amman Garh near Nowshera, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, produced dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) from 1963-1994. Consequently, earlier papers reported a soil contamination in the per mille range inside the former factory wall (88 m × 106 m) and up to 10 mg/kg of DDT in the surroundings in 2005-2007. The site within the factory wall was remonitored systematically in 2011 to complement the earlier data as a prerequisite for remediation, to put them in exposure context in a population developing area, and to suggest and evaluate the optimal remediation technique for the site. The contamination was drastically higher than the earlier published data, and the sum of DDT and its metabolites (ΣDDT) was up to 65 % in the soil. Grasses, shrubs, and trees growing in this severely contaminated site had 50-450 mg/kgdw of ΣDDT. Thus, people living nearby and husbandry as well as wild animals are heavily exposed to DDT. The semiarid climate favors wind drift and deposition of the pollutant. Additionally, DDT from products of herbivore animals feeding on the contaminated plants will enter the food web. To overcome the exposure and distribution of the DDT, the site within the factory wall was capped with 1. 5 m of soil. This remediation technique represents the easiest and least expensive solution. Nevertheless, DDT can still evaporate or leach, and groundwater can rise in this flood-prone area and thereby become contaminated, especially because a binding layer is missing. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Ali S.,Bocconi University | Ali S.,Quaid-i-Azam University | Aslam M.,Quaid-i-Azam University | Ali M.,Sustainable Development Policy Institute SDPI
International Journal of Systems Science | Year: 2014

The development of flexible parametric classes of probability models in Bayesian analysis is a very popular approach. This study is designed for heterogeneous population for a two-component mixture of the Laplace probability distribution. When a process initially starts, the researcher expects that the failure components will be very high but after some improvement/inspection it is assumed that the failure components will decrease sufficiently. That is why in such situation the Laplace model is more suitable as compared to the normal distribution due to its fatter tails behaviour. We considered the derivation of the posterior distribution for censored data assuming different conjugate informative priors. Various kinds of loss functions are used to derive these Bayes estimators and their posterior risks. A method of elicitation of hyperparameter is discussed based on a prior predictive approach. The results are also compared with the non-informative priors. To examine the performance of these estimators we have evaluated their properties for different sample sizes, censoring rates and proportions of the component of the mixture through the simulation study. To highlight the practical significance we have included an illustrative application example based on real-life mixture data. © 2013 Taylor & Francis.

Gioli G.,University of Hamburg | Khan T.,Sustainable Development Policy Institute SDPI | Bisht S.,International Center for Integrated Mountain Development | Scheffran J.,University of Hamburg
Mountain Research and Development | Year: 2014

Natural resource-dependent isolated mountain communities are highly vulnerable to climatic and environmental stresses, and migration is often the most important livelihood diversification strategy for insuring a household against shocks. In this paper, we present some key results from a study conducted in the West Karakoram region of Pakistan to assess the influence of environmental shocks on migration and the effect of remittances on the adaptive capacity of recipient households and on gender relations. Primary data were collected at community and household level through in-depth interviews, focus group discussions, and quantitative questionnaires covering 210 households in 6 villages of the West Karakoram. Our findings suggest that migration is adopted as a core response to environmental pressure, both as an ex ante form of household risk mitigation against decreased and uncertain agricultural production, and as an ex post coping mechanism in the wake of environmental shocks. Gender structures migration; only men participate in circular labor migration to urban areas, while women are left behind to take care of the agricultural work and the household. Despite women's increased role in farming activities, no significant changes were noted in the decision-making power of women as a result of male outmigration. Gender positive transformative processes are more likely to be intergenerational and driven by increased access to education for girls. © 2014 by the authors.

Shahbaz B.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Ali T.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Suleri A.Q.,Sustainable Development Policy Institute SDPI
Forest Policy and Economics | Year: 2011

Conservation and development projects are key instruments of international development agencies for natural resource conservation and rural development. However, despite some success stories, conservation of natural resources (particularly forests) in conjunction with socio-economic development - which is the precondition for sustainable development - remained a challenge in most of the developing countries. In Pakistan, too, natural forests in the Northwestern highlands continue to be depleted in spite of numerous interventions, by the international donors, to conserve the remaining forests. This paper uses a sustainable development perspective, and attempts to study the quest by the forest conservation and development interventions - initiated by the overseas development aid - regarding operationalisation of sustainable development as conceived by the projects' implementing agencies and thereby comparing it with local implementation context in terms of perceived impact/usefulness, and participation of stakeholders in the projects. This paper argues that, without considering socio-economic realities at micro (village) level, one cannot envisage the success of conservation and development interventions by considering only structural and meso (national/regional) levels. Forestry should be seen in a multi-stakeholder scenario where various actors have different claims and entitlements over forest resources. Major challenge for international development donors is to ensure a balance of power between stakeholders. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Ali S.,Bocconi University | Aslam M.,Quaid-i-Azam University | Kundu D.,Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur | Kazmi S.M.A.,Sustainable Development Policy Institute SDPI
Journal of the Chinese Institute of Industrial Engineers | Year: 2012

Constructing a exible parametric classes of probability distributions is most popular approach in Bayesian analysis for the last few decades. This study is planned in the same direction for two components mixture of generalized exponential (GE) probability distribution by considering heterogeneous population from industry. We have considered censored sample environment due to its popularity in reliability theory. In addition, we have worked out expressions for the maximum likelihood estimates along with their variances and constructed components of the information matrix. To examine the performance of these estimators, we have evaluated their properties for different sample sizes, censoring rates, proportions of the component of mixture, and a variety of loss functions (LFs). The Bayes estimates are evaluated under squared error, entropy, squared logarithmic, and precautionary LFs. Hazard rate of GE distribution graphically and numerically compared with mixture of other life-time distributions. To highlight the practical significance, we have included an illustrative application example based on a real-life data. © 2012 Chinese Institute of Industrial Engineers.

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