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Manzoor R.,Economic Growth Unit | Toru S.K.,Sustainable Development Policy Institute | Ahmed V.,Economic Growth Unit
Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association | Year: 2016

Numerous health legislations concerning child mortality, maternal health and life-threatening diseases such as polio and tuberculosis are crafted in the health sector of Pakistan. A critical assessment of health legislations points to their in-effective or sub-optimal implementation. By engaging with the concept of public law, there is a strong relationship of public health and health legislations. While the basic purpose of health legislations is to craft and enforce essential health legislations for improving public health, an examination of health legislations across Pakistan indicate an extensive health engagement which is facing certain challenges indicating traditional health practices, enforcement constraints arising due to political compulsions and complexities, and systematic problems in the health sector, reflecting issue of governance. Through focus group discussions and in-depth interviews held with policy-makers, senior health officials private health entities and parliamentarian tasks forces on millennium development goals, this study engages with health-sector legislations. In so doing, it focuses on the problematic health sector and interventions. It is observed that unless an overarching legislative framework and a shift from programmatic approach to a human rights approach is adopted, the targets of millennium development goals 4, 5 and 6 would remain off-track in Pakistan. © 2016, Pakistan Medical Association. All rights reserved. Source

Almazroui M.,King Abdulaziz University | Islam M.N.,King Abdulaziz University | Al-Khalaf A.K.,King Abdulaziz University | Saeed F.,King Abdulaziz University | Saeed F.,Sustainable Development Policy Institute
Theoretical and Applied Climatology | Year: 2015

A suitable convective parameterization scheme within Regional Climate Model version 4.3.4 (RegCM4) developed by the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, Italy, is investigated through 12 sensitivity runs for the period 2000–2010. RegCM4 is driven with European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) ERA-Interim 6-hourly boundary condition fields for the CORDEX-MENA/Arab domain. Besides ERA-Interim lateral boundary conditions data, the Climatic Research Unit (CRU) data is also used to assess the performance of RegCM4. Different statistical measures are taken into consideration in assessing model performance for 11 sub-domains throughout the analysis domain, out of which 7 (4) sub-domains give drier (wetter) conditions for the area of interest. There is no common best option for the simulation of both rainfall and temperature (with lowest bias); however, one option each for temperature and rainfall has been found to be superior among the 12 options investigated in this study. These best options for the two variables vary from region to region as well. Overall, RegCM4 simulates large pressure and water vapor values along with lower wind speeds compared to the driving fields, which are the key sources of bias in simulating rainfall and temperature. Based on the climatic characteristics of most of the Arab countries located within the study domain, the drier sub-domains are given priority in the selection of a suitable convective scheme, albeit with a compromise for both rainfall and temperature simulations. The most suitable option Grell over Land and Emanuel over Ocean in wet (GLEO wet) delivers a rainfall wet bias of 2.96 % and a temperature cold bias of 0.26 °C, compared to CRU data. An ensemble derived from all 12 runs provides unsatisfactory results for rainfall (28.92 %) and temperature (−0.54 °C) bias in the drier region because some options highly overestimate rainfall (reaching up to 200 %) and underestimate temperature (reaching up to −1.16 °C). Overall, a suitable option (GLEO wet) is recommended for downscaling the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) multi-model database using RegCM4 for the CORDEX-MENA/Arab domain for its use in future climate change impact studies. © 2015 The Author(s) Source

Almazroui M.,King Abdulaziz University | Islam M.N.,King Abdulaziz University | Alkhalaf A.K.,King Abdulaziz University | Saeed F.,King Abdulaziz University | And 3 more authors.
Arabian Journal of Geosciences | Year: 2016

The performance of a regional climate model RegCM4.3.4 (RegCM4) in simulating the climate characteristics of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region has been evaluated. The simulations carried out in this study contribute to the joint effort by the international regional downscaling community called Coordinated Regional climate Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX). The model has been forced with the boundary conditions obtained from the global reanalysis dataset ERA-Interim for the period 1979–2010. An east–west cold bias is found in the northern part of the MENA domain in RegCM4 that is absent in the ERA-Interim driving forcings, whereas a large warm bias is found over the southern Arabian Peninsula (Yemen/Oman) for both RegCM4 and ERA-Interim. The possible causes leading to the warm bias over Yemen/Oman in the RegCM4 are discussed. The model performed well in capturing the salient features of precipitation which includes ITCZ, Mediterranean cyclones as well as precipitation minima over the deserts. Moreover, the annual cycles of precipitation and mean temperature over the prominent river basins of the region have been ably captured by the model. Temperature-precipitation relationship revealed that the ERA-Interim driving forcings stay closer to the observations; however, RegCM4 remains competent for most of the Koppen-Geiger climate classification types. Performance of the model in capturing the near surface winds and specific humidity is also presented. Based on the results of this study, it is concluded that RegCM4 is well suited to conduct long-term high-resolution climate change projection for the future period over the CORDEX-MENA/Arab domain. © 2015, Saudi Society for Geosciences. Source

Prasad R.,A+ Network | Prasad R.,Merit India Consultants Pvt. Ltd. | Khwaja M.A.,Sustainable Development Policy Institute
Reviews on Environmental Health | Year: 2011

The production and disposal of hazardous waste remains a substantial problem in the Asian Pacific region. Remediation of waste disposal sites, including landfill sites, is attracting considerable research attention within the region. A recognition of the need for community engagement in this process is also growing. This article reviews the work presented in the Hazardous Waste sessions at the Pacific Basin Consortium for Environment and Health held in November 2009 in Perth. © 2011 by Walter de Gruyter · Berlin · New York. Source

Zeshan M.,Sustainable Development Policy Institute | Ahmed V.,Sustainable Development Policy Institute
Environment, Development and Sustainability | Year: 2013

The present study investigates the energy, environment and growth nexus for a panel of South Asian countries including Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Nepal. The simultaneous analysis of real GDP, energy consumption and CO2 emissions is conducted for the period 1980-2010. Levin panel unit root test and Im test panel unit root both indicate that all the variables are I (1). In addition, Kao's panel Cointegration test specifies a stable long-term relationship between all these variables. Empirical findings show that a 1 % increase in energy consumption increases output by 0.81 % in long run whereas for the same increase in CO2 emission output falls by 0.17 % in long run. Panel Granger causality tests report short-run causality running from energy consumption to CO2 emissions and from CO2 emissions to GDP. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source

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