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Lee J.W.,Hanyang University | Kong Y.B.,Hanyang University | Shin S.W.,Sustainable Building Research Center
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2014

This study has compared the equivalent external pressure coefficients, (GCpf)eq, with 6 wind load provisions and wind tunnel test data. The wind load provisions are the ASCE 7-10, NBCC 2010, AS/NZS 2011, EN 2005, AIJ 2004 and KBC 2009. Experiment data on low-rise building have been obtained at the University of Western Ontario (UWO) to contribute to the NIST aerodynamic database [1]. For the experiment, a model with 1:12 of roof slope and 4.9 and 12.2m of eave height was used under open terrain conditions (See also Ref. [1]). (GCpf)eq was re-normalized based on the external pressure coefficients, GCpf, of ASCE 7-10. When compared to (GCpf)eq of the experiment data with 4.9m of eave height, consequently, ASCE 7-10 (81%), NBCC 2010 (84%), AS/NZS 2011 (70%), AIJ 2004 (68%) and KBC 2009 (53%) were all underestimated. Among them, KBC 2009 reveals the lowest value. On the contrary, EN2005 was overestimated with 122%. When the eave height was 12.2m, in addition, the same pattern was observed in most codes. EN2005 was slightly overestimated with 115%. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.


Jung H.G.,Hanyang University | Shin S.W.,Sustainable Building Research Center
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2014

Energy, CO2 and Water are most important issues that environmental impact in buildings and cities. These are related each other very closely. This study has attempted to analyze CO2 emission by water usages, sewage wastes and also water saving strategies like installation water saving devices, rainwater harvesting and gray water system in office buildings. To assess from the early design stage, should be developed regional water amount and regional CO2 emission factor by water. Consequently, estimated one sample office project in Korea and suggested effective CO2 emission reduction plan in the water sector. Total amount of CO2 emission in the water sector in sample office building is 188.25 t·CO2eq/yr. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.


Park M.C.,Hanyang University | Lee S.H.,Sustainable Building Research Center | Shin S.-W.,Sustainable Building Research Center
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2014

The national systematic, social requirements for green building development are becoming more stringent. But from the standpoint of the builder, who would contract and implement such a business, such regulations can become a burden working against efforts to promote building. Due to the increase in the initial investment cost associated with green building development, the reality is that voluntary compliance is not readily forthcoming. Thereby, the profitability of green building construction was examined from a cost perspective for a 40-year life cycle cost. As a model example of green apartments, the "A" Apartment complex was analyzed for its economy. A comparison was made against a "standard" building for green building design on its initial investment cost, and the energy savings during the occupancy phase, required to offset the cost of investment was calculated. As a result, the A-Apartment investment cost recovery period was approximately 10 years, with about an 8% range of operating profit. If the green building construction business were to be pursued with this long-term view, it is evident that construction of green buildings can be good for business. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.


Jung H.G.,Hanyang University | Shin S.W.,Sustainable Building Research Center
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2014

Globally or regionally Building Sustainability Assessment Systems (LEED, BREEAM, CASBEE, Green-star, G-SEED and etc.) have been developed and green building market has been growing rapidly. Through updating regularly, these assessment systems have been evaluated themselves. For increasing quantitative efficiency and satisfying social requirement, it was adopted that carbon emission assessment reflects regional specifics and system characteristics. Carbon emission assessment in buildings differs with other industry. Defining scope, boundary and method should be fitted into building level. In this study describe blueprint for integrated building sustainability assessment system focused on carbon emissions to achieving sustainability and considering stakeholders' needs. The basic 5 principles are TBL concept, Eco-efficiency, Life Cycle, Top-down/Bottom-up approach and Integrated Design Process. Next generation of building sustainability assessment system should evaluate based on strength of these principle, furthermore those would be used for core concepts of Green Building Index. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.


Kim T.,Hanyang University | Tae S.,Hanyang University | Tae S.,Sustainable Building Research Center | Roh S.,Hanyang University
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2013

The production of concrete, a major construction material, emits a large amount of CO2 from the material production stage, such as in the production of cement, aggregates, and admixtures, to the manufacturing stage, and it is expected that a reduction of CO2 emission will be required. Accordingly, a study on the assessment of the appropriate amount of CO 2 emission in the concrete production is necessary. As a result, in environmentally developed countries, studies have been conducted on the production of low-CO2-emitting concrete, such as a low-carbon concrete procurement system, but studies on this topic have been insufficient in Korea. Therefore, this study evaluated the appropriateness and the reduction performance of the low-carbon-emission concrete (LCEC) mix design system and the deduced mix design results using an evolutionary algorithm (EA), the optimal mix design method, which minimizes the CO2 emission of the concrete mix design. This study established a mix design database from approximately 800 concrete mix designs with different strengths and used an EA to deduce the optimal mix design. When deducing the optimal mix design, we considered design variables, object functions, and constraint functions to develop the algorithm. Then, the appropriateness and reliability of the mix design deduced from the optimal LCEC mix design system, which in turn was developed by using the above algorithm, were evaluated. Additionally, case studies of current structures in Korea were divided into the actual concrete mix designs and the deduced optimal mix designs, which were compared to analyze the CO2 emissions. According to the case study of the concrete mix design deduced from this assessment system, the CO2 emissions of the optimal mix design compared to the actual mix design were reduced by 4 and 7% for 24 and 30 MPa concrete, respectively. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Lee K.-I.,Ajou University | Yeom D.,Ajou University | Lee B.,Sustainable Building Research Center
Applied Mechanics and Materials | Year: 2012

This research tried to analyze the effects of ecological materials on indoor environments. For this purpose, two full scale mock-ups were constructed: one with silk wall paper, which is generally used for indoor finishing and the other with hwang-toh (yellow soil), which is the preferred material for wall finishing. Comparison and performance evaluations were conducted, and the effects of hwang-toh finishing on a humid indoor environment were verified. Through this research, it was verified that a hwang-toh plaster finish is effective in maintaining the comfort of an indoor environment. © (2012) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.


Park J.,Hanyang University | Tae S.,Hanyang University | Tae S.,Sustainable Building Research Center | Kim T.,Hanyang University
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2012

As research on the reduction in the life cycle carbon dioxide (LCCO 2) emissions of buildings has become increasingly important, the development of technologies that can quantitatively assess the LCCO 2 emissions of a building at the level of the construction materials is essential. In addition, concrete of various compositions, such as high-performance concrete mixed with fly ash and blast furnace slag and eco-concrete, has become readily available and thus, a quantitative evaluation of CO 2 basic units for these new materials is needed. However, basic units for various types of concrete are not provided by the National Life Cycle Inventory Database (LCI DB) in Korea. Therefore, thorough research on these materials has become an important priority. In this study, a method to assess LCCO 2 emissions using the compressive strength of concrete is proposed. Specifically, the compressive strengths of various mixes of concrete that are employed at construction sites in Korea were utilized to evaluate CO 2 emissions. Comparisons according to the characteristics of each mixture were also made. Approximately 560 concrete mix designs used at construction sites were first classified according to the compressive strength, admixture, and season. The concrete CO 2 emissions assessment process was carried out for the concrete raw materials production stage, the concrete raw materials transportation stage, and the concrete production stage; quantitative assessment methods are proposed for the CO 2 emissions at each stage. Based on the proposed assessment methods, an evaluation of the concrete CO 2 emissions was conducted and the obtained values were analyzed. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Ahn K.-J.,GeumSung Architects and Planners Co. | Baek C.,Sustainable Building Research Center
Applied Mechanics and Materials | Year: 2013

Wind loads like typhoon and hurricane inflict numerous personal damages and tremendous property damages each year, and such wind loads are recognized as critical element for development of construction methods for the counteraction against them in consideration of climatic environments of buildings. While 2×4 construction system which burgeoned from North American and has been supplied throughout the world is recognized for its effectiveness, there has been no clear identification on how this system has adapted itself for wind loads in local conditions. This study has the purpose to clarify the local performance of 2×4 construction system through comparison of 6 countries on how this system has changed and is taking counteractions for wind loads the major climatic element. In this study, comparative analysis was conducted on the foundation, bottom, wall and joints of 2×4 construction system of each region to take counteractions against wind loads, and finally through summary of them, 2×4 construction system for counteraction against wind load was proposed. © (2013) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.


Shin S.,Hanyang University | Shin S.,Sustainable Building Research Center | Tae S.,Hanyang University | Tae S.,Sustainable Building Research Center | And 2 more authors.
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2011

The purpose of this study is to develop a simple method to assess the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted during the production of construction materials used in the construction of a standard Korean apartment house. This study is part of a wider effort to develop a system for evaluating the environmental load of construction during architectural planning and basic design phases. We formulated models of a standard Korean apartment house and a super high-rise apartment house, based on five reference floor plans for "green homes" provided by the Korean government. We identified major construction materials that account for over 80% of the CO2 emission that occurs during construction and built a database to evaluate the environmental loads of these materials according to house types described in terms of area, block type, combination of living units, or number of floors. We used the information in this database to develop technology to assess the amounts of CO2 that are emitted during the production of construction materials used to build residential apartment houses in Korea. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Tae S.,Hanyang University | Tae S.,Sustainable Building Research Center | Shin S.,Hanyang University | Shin S.,Sustainable Building Research Center | And 2 more authors.
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2011

This study classified the life cycle of buildings into a construction stage, an operation stage, a maintenance stage and a dissolution/disposal stage, and proposed a CO2 assessment method for each stage for the purpose of creating a simple life cycle CO2 assessment system for apartment houses. Specifically in the construction stage, major construction materials that are the source of more than 80% of CO2 emissions produced during building construction were selected, and a method of evaluating CO2 emissions for five standard apartment houses was proposed. In addition, amounts of CO2 emissions generated during the building operation stage and the maintenance stage were calculated based on the "Green Home Certification System" and the "Apartment House Building Long Term Repair Plan and Repair Rate" of the Korean Ministry of Land, Transportation and Maritime Affairs. For the dissolution/disposal stage, a CO2 assessment method was proposed that would enter into a database the amount of oil used by disposal equipment and other related types of machines, and analyze the process of waste treatment. Also, the potential of applying a simple assessment program was evaluated in connection with a life cycle CO2 assessment simulation utilizing an actual apartment building. Consequently, the results of a building life cycle CO2 assessment using standard apartment houses as proposed in this study indicated a figure of 14,013.66 ton-CO2. That figure is similar to 11,640.00 ton-CO2 for existing apartment houses. In particular, the results of material production in the construction stage and CO2 calculation in the maintenance stage indicated significant results closely approximating the 80% of CO2 emissions attributed to construction material production noted earlier in this study at first. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

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