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Serapiglia M.J.,Cornell University | Serapiglia M.J.,Sustainable Biofuels and Coproducts Research Unit | Gouker F.E.,Cornell University | Hart J.F.,University of British Columbia | And 4 more authors.
Bioenergy Research | Year: 2015

Polyploidy is a common observation in the genus Salix, including some of the shrub willow species currently being bred as a potential bioenergy feedstock. Breeding of shrub willow has produced new species hybrids, among which a disproportionate number of high-yielding genotypes are triploid, produced from crosses between diploid and tetraploid parents. These novel hybrids display significant variation in biomass compositional quality, including differences according to ploidy. The triploid and tetraploid genotypes possess lower lignin content than diploid genotypes. Biomass composition was also significantly different across the 3-year growth cycle typical of bioenergy plantings. There were differences in syringyl/guaiacyl (S:G) lignin ratios among the 75 genotypes examined, in addition to significant correlations with willow growth traits, yield, and composition. These differences suggest that a long-term strategy of breeding for triploid progeny will generate cultivars with improved growth traits and wood composition for conversion to biofuels. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source


Moreau R.A.,Sustainable Biofuels and Coproducts Research Unit | Bregitzer P.,National Small Grains and Potato Germplam Research Facility | Liu K.,National Small Grains and Potato Germplam Research Facility | Hicks K.B.,Sustainable Biofuels and Coproducts Research Unit
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2012

Recent breeding advances have led to the development of several barley lines and cultivars with significant reductions (50% or greater) in phytate levels. Low-phytate (LP) grain is distinguished by containing not only a reduced level of phytate P but also an increased level of inorganic P, resulting in greater bioavailability of P and mineral cations in animal diets. It is important to determine whether other nutritional characteristics are altered by breeding for the low-phytate trait. This study was designed to investigate if breeding for reduced phytate content in barleys had any effect on the contents of other attributes measured by comparing mean and range values of the levels of protein, oil, ash, total carbohydrate, starch, and β-glucan, fatty acid composition, and levels of tocopherols and tocotrienols between five LP and five normal-phytate barleys grown in three Idaho locations. Results show that only the phytate level in the LP group was substantially lower than that of the normal-phytate group and that all other attributes measured or calculated were substantially equivalent between the two groups of barleys. Therefore, the phytate level had little effect on the levels of protein, oil, ash, total carbohydrate, starch, and β-glucan, fatty acid composition, and levels of tocopherols and tocotrienols in barley seeds. © This article not subject to U.S. Copyright. Published 2012 by the American Chemical Society. Source


Moreau R.A.,Sustainable Biofuels and Coproducts Research Unit | Harron A.F.,Sustainable Biofuels and Coproducts Research Unit | Powell M.J.,Sustainable Biofuels and Coproducts Research Unit | Hoyt J.L.,Sustainable Biofuels and Coproducts Research Unit
JAOCS, Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society | Year: 2016

Carotenoids are potentially valuable components in grain sorghum and there is a need to better understand their concentration, composition, and value. Thirteen modern commercial grain sorghum hybrids and five sorghum lines were extracted and analyzed and the levels of oil and carotenoids were compared. The same samples were also evaluated for lipolytic enzyme activity. The oil content in all eighteen samples ranged from 3.21 to 4.29 wt%. Lutein and zeaxanthin were the predominant carotenoids and the levels of total carotenoids ranged from 3.82 to 19.5 ppm in the oil, which was much lower than the levels of total carotenoids in two yellow corn samples (70.8 and 103 ppm). Lipolytic enzyme activity was estimated by storing milled kernel samples for 2 weeks at 25 °C and measuring the levels of total free fatty acids. After 2 weeks, the levels of free fatty acids in the oil of the eighteen sorghum samples ranged from 11.49 and 52.17 wt%, compared to 10.29 and 17.54 wt% in oil from the two corn samples. This new data will be useful for persons using grain sorghum for food, biofuels and other industrial applications. Examples of sorghum genotypes with high and low levels of carotenoids and high and low levels of lipolytic enzymes were both identified. © 2016 AOCS (outside the USA) Source

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