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State College, PA, United States

Susquehanna University is a four-year, co-educational, private liberal arts university in Selinsgrove, in central Pennsylvania, United States. The University is situated in the Susquehanna Valley approximately 50 miles north of Pennsylvania's state capital, Harrisburg.The academic programs fall into either the School of Arts and science or the AACSB International accredited Sigmund Weis School of Business. Susquehanna University enrolls more than 2,200 undergraduate students from 35 states and 17 countries, and maintains a student-to-faculty ratio of 12 to 1. A large majority of students live on campus all four years and as of 2012, all students participate in a cross-cultural study away or service learning experience known as the GO Program. Noteworthy alumni include several Pennsylvania political representatives and CEOs of Fortune 500 companies.The University was founded in 1856 by Benjamin Kurtz as the Lutheran based Missionary Institute paired with a sister college, the Susquehanna Female College. When the sister college closed in 1873, the missionary institute became co-educational, and in 1895 it became a four-year school renamed Susquehanna University. The school's 325 acres sit in rural Pennsylvania and house 39 residential buildings, 6 academic buildings, a library, athletic facilities, a health center, and several administrative buildings. Wikipedia.

Straub K.H.,Susquehanna University
Journal of Climate | Year: 2013

Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) initiation in the real-time multivariate MJO (RMM) index is explored through an analysis of observed case studies and composite events. Specific examples illustrate that both the dates of MJO initiation and the existence of the MJO itself can vary substantially among several well-known MJO indices, depending on whether the focus is on convection or circulation. Composites of "primary" MJO initiation events in which the RMM index rapidly increases in amplitude from a non-MJO state to an MJO state are presented and are supplemented by two case studies from the 1985/86 winter season. Results illustrate that, for primary MJO initiation events in the Indian Ocean (RMM phase 1), slowly eastwardpropagating 850-hPa (200 hPa) easterly (westerly) anomalies over the Indian Ocean precede the amplification of the RMM index by at least 10 days, while suppressed convection over the western Pacific Ocean precedes the amplification by 5 days. These "local" Eastern Hemispheric predecessor signals are similar to those found in successive (well established) MJO events but are not captured by the global-scaleRMMindex because of their smaller zonal scale. The development of a primary MJO event is thus often transparent in the RMMindex, since it occurs on scales smaller than zonal wavenumber 1, particularly in convection. Even when the RMM index is altered to respond to convection only, the same local precursor signals are found. Both composites and case studies suggest that, for primary MJO initiation events in the Indian Ocean, the development of global-scale circulation anomalies typically precedes the onset of large-scale deep convection. © 2013 American Meteorological Society. Source

Wakai F.,Tokyo Institute of Technology | Brakke K.A.,Susquehanna University
Acta Materialia | Year: 2011

Sintering by coupled grain boundary and surface diffusion was analyzed in terms of mechanics. The shrinkage is a result of the relative motion of particles caused by grain boundary diffusion. The center of mass of a particle also moves due to spheroidization of the particles by surface diffusion. The mobility and sintering force for both processes were calculated during sintering of two identical particles until they reached equilibrium. The contribution of grain boundary diffusion to the final shrinkage increased with increasing ratio of grain boundary diffusion coefficient to surface diffusion coefficient and the ratio of grain boundary energy to surface energy. © 2011 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Heuer M.,Susquehanna University
Business Strategy and the Environment | Year: 2011

This paper explores the theoretical underpinnings of collaboration and ecosystem management in order to identify the relationships and processes involved in implementing ecosystem management programs through cross-sector collaboration. Ecosystem management requires a highly adaptive and resilient social-ecological governance approach, which addresses spatiality and temporality issues. In order to explore possible implementation issues with ecosystem management, propositions are developed dealing with adaptive governance, institutional isomorphism and collective action. The paper concludes with a discussion of the theoretic underpinnings involved in implementing ecosystem management through cross-sector collaborations. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment. Source

Lo E.,Susquehanna University
Pattern Analysis and Applications | Year: 2015

Anomaly detection in a large area using hyperspectral imaging is an important application in real-time remote sensing. Anomaly detectors based on subspace models are suitable for such an anomaly and usually assume the main background subspace and its dimensions are known. These detectors can detect the anomaly for a range of values of the dimension of the subspace. The objective of this paper is to develop an anomaly detector that extends this range of values by assuming main background subspace with an unknown user-specified dimension and by imposing covariance of error to be a diagonal matrix. A pixel from the image is modeled as the sum of a linear combination of the unknown main background subspace and an unknown error. By having more unknown quantities, there are more degrees of freedom to find a better way to fit data to the model. By having a diagonal matrix for the covariance of the error, the error components become uncorrelated. The coefficients of the linear combination are unknown, but are solved by using a maximum likelihood estimation. Experimental results using real hyperspectral images show that the anomaly detector can detect the anomaly for a significantly larger range of values for the dimension of the subspace than conventional anomaly detectors. © 2015 Springer-Verlag London Source

Elick J.M.,Susquehanna University
International Journal of Coal Geology | Year: 2013

Abundant precipitation in 2011 resulted in the formation of nine new sinkholes and many other, smaller subsidence features associated with a coal fire in Centralia, PA. Additionally, fire vent temperatures decreased following prolonged precipitation associated with Hurricane Irene and Tropical Storm Lee. Just over 185-cm of precipitation were measured for central Pennsylvania, which is nearly twice the annual amount and represents the wettest year on record. Precipitation infiltrated the soil and bedrock, and interacted with hot bedrock in the subsurface location of the coal fire. Steam and other gases moved along the pillar structures, through mined-out coal areas, and escaped at the surface exhaust vents along the fire front. Surface regolith and bedrock softened and with the increased water weight, collapsed, producing subsidence features. As a result, sinkholes up to 1.8-m deep and 26-m wide formed. Some of these features have coalesced, forming even larger ellipse-shaped troughs. These subsidence features were mapped along the Bottom, Middle, and Top splits of the Buck Mountain coal from the Llewellyn Formation (middle to upper Pennsylvanian). Aerial thermal infrared images (TIR) reveal the sinkholes and fractures occur in alignment with three thermal anomalies associated with gas and heat release. This may indicate that mined-out coal beds act as conduits for heat circulation or that multiple beds of anthracite coal are on fire in the subsurface in Centralia. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source

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