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State College, PA, United States

Susquehanna University is a four-year, co-educational, private liberal arts university in Selinsgrove, in central Pennsylvania, United States. The University is situated in the Susquehanna Valley approximately 50 miles north of Pennsylvania's state capital, Harrisburg.The academic programs fall into either the School of Arts and science or the AACSB International accredited Sigmund Weis School of Business. Susquehanna University enrolls more than 2,200 undergraduate students from 35 states and 17 countries, and maintains a student-to-faculty ratio of 12 to 1. A large majority of students live on campus all four years and as of 2012, all students participate in a cross-cultural study away or service learning experience known as the GO Program. Noteworthy alumni include several Pennsylvania political representatives and CEOs of Fortune 500 companies.The University was founded in 1856 by Benjamin Kurtz as the Lutheran based Missionary Institute paired with a sister college, the Susquehanna Female College. When the sister college closed in 1873, the missionary institute became co-educational, and in 1895 it became a four-year school renamed Susquehanna University. The school's 325 acres sit in rural Pennsylvania and house 39 residential buildings, 6 academic buildings, a library, athletic facilities, a health center, and several administrative buildings. Wikipedia.

Straub K.H.,Susquehanna University
Journal of Climate | Year: 2013

Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) initiation in the real-time multivariate MJO (RMM) index is explored through an analysis of observed case studies and composite events. Specific examples illustrate that both the dates of MJO initiation and the existence of the MJO itself can vary substantially among several well-known MJO indices, depending on whether the focus is on convection or circulation. Composites of "primary" MJO initiation events in which the RMM index rapidly increases in amplitude from a non-MJO state to an MJO state are presented and are supplemented by two case studies from the 1985/86 winter season. Results illustrate that, for primary MJO initiation events in the Indian Ocean (RMM phase 1), slowly eastwardpropagating 850-hPa (200 hPa) easterly (westerly) anomalies over the Indian Ocean precede the amplification of the RMM index by at least 10 days, while suppressed convection over the western Pacific Ocean precedes the amplification by 5 days. These "local" Eastern Hemispheric predecessor signals are similar to those found in successive (well established) MJO events but are not captured by the global-scaleRMMindex because of their smaller zonal scale. The development of a primary MJO event is thus often transparent in the RMMindex, since it occurs on scales smaller than zonal wavenumber 1, particularly in convection. Even when the RMM index is altered to respond to convection only, the same local precursor signals are found. Both composites and case studies suggest that, for primary MJO initiation events in the Indian Ocean, the development of global-scale circulation anomalies typically precedes the onset of large-scale deep convection. © 2013 American Meteorological Society. Source

Onafowora O.A.,Susquehanna University | Owoye O.,Western Connecticut State University
Energy Economics | Year: 2014

This paper examines the long-run and the dynamic temporal relationships between economic growth, energy consumption, population density, trade openness, and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in Brazil, China, Egypt, Japan, Mexico, Nigeria, South Korea, and South Africa based on the environment Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis. We employ the ARDL Bounds test to cointegration and CUSUM and CUSUMSQ tests to ensure cointegration and parameter stability. The estimated results show that the inverted U-shaped EKC hypothesis holds in Japan and South Korea. In the other six countries, the long-run relationship between economic growth and CO2 emissions follows an N-shaped trajectory and the estimated turning points are much higher than the sample mean. In addition, the results indicate that energy consumption Granger-causes both CO2 emissions and economic growth in all the countries. Our results are consistent with previous studies that show that there is no unique relationship between energy consumption, population density, economic growth, trade openness, and the environment across countries. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

Straub K.H.,Susquehanna University | Haertel P.T.,Yale University | Kiladis G.N.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
Journal of Climate | Year: 2010

Output from 20 coupled global climate models is analyzed to determine whether convectively coupled Kelvin waves exist in the models, and, if so, how their horizontal and vertical structures compare to observations. Model data are obtained from the World Climate Research Program's (WCRP's) Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 3 (CMIP3) multimodel dataset. Ten of the 20 models contain spectral peaks in precipitation in the Kelvin wave band, and, of these 10, only 5 contain wave activity distributions and three-dimensional wave structures that resemble the observations. Thus, the majority (75%) of the global climate models surveyed do not accurately represent convectively coupled Kelvin waves, one of the primary sources of submonthly zonally propagating variability in the tropics. The primary feature common to the five successful models is the convective parameterization. Three of the five models use the Tiedtke-Nordeng convective scheme, while the other two utilize the Pan and Randall scheme. The 15 models with less success at generating Kelvin waves predominantly contain convective schemes that are based on the concept of convective adjustment, although it appears that those schemes can be improved by the addition of convective "trigger" functions. Three-dimensional Kelvin wave structures in the five successful models resemble observations to a large degree, with vertically tilted temperature, specific humidity, and zonal wind anomalies. However, no model completely captures the observed signal, with most of the models being deficient in lower-tropospheric temperature and humidity signals near the location of maximum precipitation. These results suggest the need for improvements in the representations of shallow convection and convective downdrafts in global models. © 2010 American Meteorological Society. Source

Wakai F.,Tokyo Institute of Technology | Brakke K.A.,Susquehanna University
Acta Materialia | Year: 2011

Sintering by coupled grain boundary and surface diffusion was analyzed in terms of mechanics. The shrinkage is a result of the relative motion of particles caused by grain boundary diffusion. The center of mass of a particle also moves due to spheroidization of the particles by surface diffusion. The mobility and sintering force for both processes were calculated during sintering of two identical particles until they reached equilibrium. The contribution of grain boundary diffusion to the final shrinkage increased with increasing ratio of grain boundary diffusion coefficient to surface diffusion coefficient and the ratio of grain boundary energy to surface energy. © 2011 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Heuer M.,Susquehanna University
Business Strategy and the Environment | Year: 2011

This paper explores the theoretical underpinnings of collaboration and ecosystem management in order to identify the relationships and processes involved in implementing ecosystem management programs through cross-sector collaboration. Ecosystem management requires a highly adaptive and resilient social-ecological governance approach, which addresses spatiality and temporality issues. In order to explore possible implementation issues with ecosystem management, propositions are developed dealing with adaptive governance, institutional isomorphism and collective action. The paper concludes with a discussion of the theoretic underpinnings involved in implementing ecosystem management through cross-sector collaborations. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment. Source

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