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Zheng X.,Renmin University of China | Zheng X.,Harbin Institute of Technology | Chen D.,Renmin University of China | Wang Q.,Renmin University of China | Zhang Z.,Susquehanna River Basin Commission
Chemical Engineering Journal | Year: 2014

China has been and will be facing water shortage issues due to the disparity between water supply and demand, especially within Chinese coastal areas. Seawater desalination can increase the total water supply and is an important component in addressing water shortage issues in China. With the development of the last six decades, seawater desalination technologies and applications have been advanced remarkably. Total seawater desalination capacity has increased from 10,000m3/d in 2000 to approximately 660,000m3/d in 2011. Seawater desalination has been primarily used in power generation, steel manufacturing, petrochemical industry, and public water supply. 75 desalination plants have been constructed in China, among which 16 desalination plants have capacities of 10,000m3/d or more. Nine desalination plants are under construction, which will provide capacity of 408,000m3/d. Most of the desalination applications (99.5% of the desalination capacity) are located within five provinces: Liaoning, Shandong, Hebei, Tianjin, and Zhejiang. The dominant desalination technologies are reverse osmosis (RO) and multi-effect distillation (MED). 80.3% of desalination plants employ RO and 14.5% of desalination plants adopt MED. The desalination capacities of RO and MED are 348,000 and 232,000m3/d, respectively. Facing the challenge of water shortage, seawater desalination is of necessity in China and is increasingly an inevitable national strategy to address the issue. China is one of the most promising market for seawater desalination. However, international desalination companies will still dominate seawater desalination market for the foreseeable future. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source


Gu Q.,Renmin University of China | Chen Y.,Renmin University of China | Pody R.,Susquehanna River Basin Commission | Cheng R.,Renmin University of China | And 2 more authors.
Resources, Conservation and Recycling | Year: 2015

Tianjin is a large, rapidly growing urban center in northern China. This region has a semi-arid climate and limited water resources. Tianjin has a thriving economy and a growing population with a substantial and growing water need. Efficient use of limited water resources is critical to its continued growth. While the development of new water sources is ongoing, the reclamation of existing water can provide a substantial contribution to meeting the water needs of the region. A positive attitude by the public toward the use of reclaimed water is critical to the full development and utilization of this resource. The present study examines public knowledge, perceptions and attitudes toward water resources, with a focus on the use of reclaimed water as gaged by a survey. Survey results indicate that the general public is aware that water resources are limited, but is relatively unaware of where their water comes from, which sectors are the largest water consumers and what happens to the water after it has been used. Further, public awareness of the need to conserve water is relatively low. Reclaimed water is currently used by 54% of the population. The public is highly receptive to the use of reclaimed water, but not for domestic use and potable use. Analysis of the survey results indicates a correlation between people's social and economic background, and their attitudes toward the use of reclaimed water. People with a higher education and income level are more inclined to use reclaimed water and are more willing to pay for it. The study makes recommendations for improving the receptivity of the public toward the use of reclaimed water. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Zhang Z.,Susquehanna River Basin Commission | Dehoff A.D.,Susquehanna River Basin Commission | Pody R.D.,Susquehanna River Basin Commission
Journal of Hydrologic Engineering | Year: 2010

Streamflow trend analyses have so far mainly focused on testing if trends for a specified period are significant. However, the traditional trend tests cannot characterize trend patterns, i.e., if the trend is gradual or abrupt. This study contributes a novel approach to identify the trend pattern of streamflows. This study proposes the use of repeated monotonic trend tests with varying beginning and ending times. The results of the repeated trend tests are plotted along the beginning and ending times. The sensitivity of trends with respect to the period of time is then employed to characterize the trend pattern. Application of the new approach to watersheds within the Susquehanna River Basin demonstrates that the new approach is capable of characterizing trend patterns. A comparison with the results of single monotonic trend tests shows that it is also useful for the exploration of all available data in contrast to a single monotonic trend test that only shows trends for a specified time period. © 2010 ASCE. Source


Shank M.K.,Susquehanna River Basin Commission | Henning A.M.,Susquehanna River Basin Commission | Leakey A.S.,Susquehanna River Basin Commission
North American Journal of Fisheries Management | Year: 2016

Electrofishing is a valuable tool used to collect fish assemblage data, which is often vital to ecological assessments; however, wadeable electrofishing protocols vary in optimal reach length and number of passes based on study objectives, stream size, and geographic region, among other factors. This study examined a method intended to efficiently assess fish assemblage composition through the use of a single-unit, width-based electrofishing protocol using multiple passes. Fish assemblage data were collected using backpack or tote barge electrofishing equipment from 93 wadeable streams 2.3–76.4 m in width in the Susquehanna River basin (SRB). Results indicated that >97% of total species present were collected after the first two electrofishing passes, regardless of stream size. New species were more often captured on subsequent electrofishing passes in larger streams. Compared with other studies our results suggest less electrofishing effort is necessary to accurately estimate fish assemblage composition in smaller streams and in more depauperate ichthyofaunal regions. A single electrofishing pass satisfied the objective of obtaining ≥90% assemblage similarity in small streams ≤ 5 m wide. Two electrofishing passes were necessary to reach ≥90% assemblage similarity in larger wadeable SRB streams > 5 m in width. Results suggest a single electrofishing unit and a crew of ≤4 individuals can obtain reliable estimates of fish assemblage composition from wadeable streams of various sizes, which may be desirable when personnel or gear is limited. The shortcomings of single-unit, multiple-pass electrofishing (e.g., inability to model abundance or species richness) reinforce the need for managers and researchers to choose electrofishing protocols based on study objectives. Overall, our results suggest that the single-unit, multiple-pass protocol performed throughout a reach equal to 10 times the stream width is appropriate to reliably estimate fish assemblage composition in streams of the mid-Atlantic and northeastern regions of the United States. © American Fisheries Society 2016. Source


Zhang Z.,Susquehanna River Basin Commission | Dehoff A.D.,Susquehanna River Basin Commission | Pody R.D.,Susquehanna River Basin Commission | Balay J.W.,Susquehanna River Basin Commission
Water Resources Management | Year: 2010

Streamflow statistics are commonly used for purposes of planning and managing water resources in the Susquehanna River Basin. For accurately estimating streamflow statistics, it is important to identify whether there are increasing or decreasing changes during the period of records and whether the change is gradual or abrupt. This study employs repeated monotonic trend tests with varying beginning and ending time for detecting changes in streamflow in tributaries within the Susquehanna River Basin. The method is employed to analyze long-term streamflow trends and detect change for annual minimum, median, and maximum daily streamflow for eight unregulated watersheds within the basin. Monthly baseflow and storm runoff are investigated. The results show a considerable increase in annual minimum flow for most of the examined watersheds and a noticeable increase in annual median flow for about half of the examined watersheds. Both these streamflow increases were abrupt, with only a few years of transition centered around 1970. The abrupt change in annual minimum and median flows appears to occur in the summer and fall seasons. The abrupt change in annual minimum and median flows is due to increased flows in the summer and fall seasons. The results also indicate there is no long-term significant increasing or decreasing change in annual maximum flow in the examined watersheds. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

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