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Khor T.O.,Rutgers University | Fuentes F.,Rutgers University | Shu L.,Rutgers University | Paredes-Gonzalez X.,Rutgers University | And 6 more authors.

Epigenetic control of NRF2, a master regulator of many critical antioxidative stress defense genes in human prostate cancer (CaP), is unknown. Our previous animal study found decreased Nrf2 expression through promoter CpG methylation/histone modifications during prostate cancer progression in TRAMP mice. In this study, we evaluated CpG methylation of human NRF2 promoter in 27 clinical prostate cancer samples and in LNCaP cells using MAQMA analysis and bisulfite genomic DNA sequencing. Prostate cancer tissue microarray (TMA) containing normal and prostate cancer tissues was studied by immunohistochemistry. Luciferase reporter assay using specific human NRF2 DNA promoter segments and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay against histone modifying proteins were performed in LNCaP cells. Three specific CpG sites in the NRF2 promoter were found to be hypermethylated in clinical prostate cancer samples (BPH Source

Yue W.,Albany State University | Yang C.S.,Albany State University | Yang C.S.,Susan Lehman Cullman Laboratory for Cancer Research | DiPaola R.S.,Albany State University | And 2 more authors.
Cancer Prevention Research

Pancreatic cancer, as the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths, carries a poor prognosis with a median survival of 6 months and a dismal 5-year survival rate of 3% to 5%. These statistics highlight an urgent need for novel chemopreventive and therapeutic strategies for this malignancy. Metformin and aspirin have been explored as two emerging cancer chemoprevention agents for different types of cancers, including pancreatic cancer. Here, we review the effects of both metformin and aspirin on pancreatic tumorigenesis and their potential actions in pancreatic cancer. Special attention is paid to their effects on the important signaling pathways of pancreatic cancer development as well as possible mechanisms for synergy between these two agents. For metformin, the most important mechanism may involve the inhibition of mTOR signaling via AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-dependent and -independent pathways. For aspirin, the major mechanism is the anti-inflammatory action through the inhibition of COX-1/COX-2 and modulation of the NFκB or STAT3 pathway. In addition, aspirin may activate AMPK, and both agents may affect Notch, Wnt/β-catenin, and other signaling pathways. The combination of metformin and aspirin will provide additive and possibly synergistic effects for the prevention and treatment of pancreatic cancer. ©2014 AACR. Source

Bernard J.J.,University of California at San Diego | Bernard J.J.,Susan Lehman Cullman Laboratory for Cancer Research | Cowing-Zitron C.,University of California at San Diego | Nakatsuji T.,University of California at San Diego | And 8 more authors.
Nature Medicine

Exposure to ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation from the sun can result in sunburn, premature aging and carcinogenesis, but the mechanism responsible for acute inflammation of the skin is not well understood. Here we show that RNA is released from keratinocytes after UVB exposure and that this stimulates production of the inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) from nonirradiated keratinocytes and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Whole-transcriptome sequencing revealed that UVB irradiation of keratinocytes induced alterations in the double-stranded domains of some noncoding RNAs. We found that this UVB-damaged RNA was sufficient to induce cytokine production from nonirradiated cells, as UVB irradiation of a purified noncoding RNA (U1 RNA) reproduced the same response as the one we observed to UVB-damaged keratinocytes. The responses to both UVB-damaged self-RNAs and UVB-damaged keratinocytes were dependent on Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) and Toll-like receptor adaptor molecule 1 (TRIF). In response to UVB exposure, Tlr3-/- mice did not upregulate TNF-α in the skin. Moreover, TLR3 was also necessary for UVB-radiation-induced immune suppression. These findings establish that UVB damage is detected by TLR3 and that self-RNA is a damage-Associated molecular pattern that serves as an endogenous signal of solar injury. © 2012 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Martino J.J.,Susan Lehman Cullman Laboratory for Cancer Research | Wall B.A.,Susan Lehman Cullman Laboratory for Cancer Research | Mastrantoni E.,Susan Lehman Cullman Laboratory for Cancer Research | Mastrantoni E.,University of Rome Sapienze | And 7 more authors.

Non-neuronal expression of components of the glutamatergic system has been increasingly observed, and our laboratory previously had demonstrated the etiological role of ectopically expressed metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (Grm1/mGluR1) in mouse models of melanoma. We hypothesize that inappropriate glutamatergic signaling in other cell types can dysregulate growth leading to transformation and tumorigenesis. As most cancers are carcinomas, we selected an immortalized primary baby mouse kidney (iBMK) cell model to assess whether Grm1 can transform epithelial cells. These iBMK cells, engineered to be immortal yet nontumorigenic and retaining normal epithelial characteristics, were used as recipients for exogenous Grm1 cDNA. Several stable Grm1-expressing clones were isolated and the Grm1-receptors were shown to be functional, as evidenced by the accumulation of second messengers in response to Grm1 agonist. Additionally activated by agonist were mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and AKT/protein kinase B signaling cascades, the major intracellular pathways shown by many investigators to be critical in melanomagenesis and other neoplasms. These Grm1-iBMK cells exhibited enhanced cell proliferation in in vitro methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays and significant tumorigenicity in in vivo allografts. Persistent Grm1 expression was required for the maintenance of the in vivo tumorigenic phenotype as demonstrated by an inducible Grm1-silencing RNA. These are the first results that indicate that Grm1 can be an oncogene in epithelial cells. In addition, relevance to human disease in the corresponding tumor type of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) may be suggested by observed expression of GRM1/mGluR1 in a number of RCC tumor biopsy samples and cell lines, and the effects of GRM1 modulation on tumorigenicity therein. Moreover, RCC cell lines exhibited elevated levels of extracellular glutamate, and some lines responded to drugs, which modulate the glutamatergic system. These findings imply a possible role for glutamate signaling apparatus in RCC cell growth, and that the glutamatergic system may be a therapeutic target in RCC. & 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. Source

Yang Z.,Susan Lehman Cullman Laboratory for Cancer Research | Lee M.-J.,Susan Lehman Cullman Laboratory for Cancer Research | Zhao Y.,Susan Lehman Cullman Laboratory for Cancer Research | Yang C.S.,Susan Lehman Cullman Laboratory for Cancer Research | Yang C.S.,Cancer Institute of New Jersey
Genes and Nutrition

Tocotrienols (T3s), members of the vitamin E family, exhibit potent anti-cancer, anti-oxidative, antiinflammatory, and some other biological activities. To better understand the bioavailability and metabolism of T3s, T3s and their metabolites were identified in urine and fecal samples from mice on diet supplemented with mixed T3s using HPLC/electrochemical detection and liquid chromatography electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS). Whereas the short-chain metabolites carboxyethyl hydroxychromans (CEHCs) and carboxymethylbutyl hydroxychromans (CMBHCs) were the major metabolites of T3s, several new metabolites with double bonds were also identified. Similar to tocopherols, the majority of T3 metabolites were excreted as sulfate/ glucuronide conjugates in mouse urine. The distribution of γ- and δ-T3 and γ-T3 metabolites were also determined in different organs as well as in urine and fecal samples from mice on diets supplemented with corresponding T3s. The synergistic anti-cancer actions of γ-T3 and atorvastatin (ATST) were studied in HT29 and HCT116 colon cancer cell lines. The combination greatly potentiated the ability of each individual agent to inhibit cancer cell growth and to induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. The triple combination of γ-T3, ATST, and celecoxib exhibited synergistic actions when compared with any double combination plus the third agent. Mechanistic studies revealed that the synergistic actions of γ-T3 and ATST could be attributed to their mediation of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase, and the subsequent inhibition of protein geranylgeranylation. It remains to be determined whether such a synergy occurs in vivo. © Springer-Verlag 2011. Source

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