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Simard E.P.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Simard E.P.,Surveillance Research Program | Shiels M.S.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Bhatia K.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Engels E.A.,U.S. National Cancer Institute
Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention | Year: 2012

Background: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) results in partial immune restoration for people with AIDS, but its impact on cancer risk among children is unknown. Methods: Data from the U.S. HIV/AIDS Cancer Match Study were used to evaluate cancer risk for people diagnosed with AIDS as children (diagnosed with AIDS at ages 0-14 years, during 1980-2007, followed for up to 10 years; N = 5,850). We calculated standardized incidence ratios (SIR) to compare cancer risk to the general population. Poisson regression evaluated changes in cancer incidence between the pre-HAART (1980-1995) and HAART eras (1996-2007). Results: There were 106 cancers observed with significantly elevated risks for the two major AIDS-defining cancers: Kaposi sarcoma [KS; N = 20, SIR = 1,694; 95% confidence interval (CI), 986-2,712 and SIR = 1,146; 95% CI, 236-3,349] during the pre-HAART and HAART eras, respectively, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL; N = 64, SIR = 338; 95% CI, 242-458 and SIR = 116; 95% CI, 74-175). Incidence of both cancers declined 87% and 60%, respectively, in the HAART era (P < 0.05). Of non-AIDS-defining cancers, leiomyosarcoma risk (N = 9) was elevated during both time periods (SIR = 863; 95% CI, 235-2,211 and SIR = 533; 95% CI, 173-1,243). Conclusion: People diagnosed with AIDS during childhood remain at elevated risk for KS, NHL, and leiomyosarcoma in the HAART era. Incidence of KS and NHL declined relative to widespread HAART use, but there was no change in the incidence of other cancers. Impact: People diagnosed with AIDS during childhood remain at elevated risk for certain cancers. Continued monitoring is warranted as this immunosuppressed population ages into adulthood where cancer risks generally increase. ©2011 AACR. Source


Arnold M.,International Agency for Research on Cancer | Sierra M.S.,International Agency for Research on Cancer | Laversanne M.,International Agency for Research on Cancer | Soerjomataram I.,International Agency for Research on Cancer | And 2 more authors.
Gut | Year: 2016

Objective The global burden of colorectal cancer (CRC) is expected to increase by 60% to more than 2.2 million new cases and 1.1 million deaths by 2030. In this study, we aim to describe the recent CRC incidence and mortality patterns and trends linking the findings to the prospects of reducing the burden through cancer prevention and care. Design Estimates of sex-specific CRC incidence and mortality rates in 2012 were extracted from the GLOBOCAN database. Temporal patterns were assessed for 37 countries using data from Cancer Incidence in Five Continents (CI5) volumes I-X and the WHO mortality database. Trends were assessed via the annual percentage change using joinpoint regression and discussed in relation to human development levels. Results CRC incidence and mortality rates vary up to 10-fold worldwide, with distinct gradients across human development levels, pointing towards widening disparities and an increasing burden in countries in transition. Generally, CRC incidence and mortality rates are still rising rapidly in many low-income and middleincome countries; stabilising or decreasing trends tend to be seen in highly developed countries where rates remain among the highest in the world. Conclusions Patterns and trends in CRC incidence and mortality correlate with present human development levels and their incremental changes might reflect the adoption of more western lifestyles. Targeted resourcedependent interventions, including primary prevention in low-income, supplemented with early detection in highincome settings, are needed to reduce the number of patients with CRC in future decades. © 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd & British Society of Gastroenterology. Source


Jemal A.,Surveillance Research Program | Bray F.,International Agency for Research on Cancer | Forman D.,International Agency for Research on Cancer | O'Brien M.,Global Access to Pain Relief Initiative | And 3 more authors.
Cancer | Year: 2012

Cancer is an emerging public health problem in Africa. About 715,000 new cancer cases and 542,000 cancer deaths occurred in 2008 on the continent, with these numbers expected to double in the next 20 years simply because of the aging and growth of the population. Furthermore, cancers such as lung, female breast, and prostate cancers are diagnosed at much higher frequencies than in the past because of changes in lifestyle factors and detection practices associated with urbanization and economic development. Breast cancer in women and prostate cancer in men have now become the most commonly diagnosed cancers in many Sub-Saharan African countries, replacing cervical and liver cancers. In most African countries, cancer control programs and the provision of early detection and treatment services are limited despite this increasing burden. This paper reviews the current patterns of cancer in Africa and the opportunities for reducing the burden through the application of resource level interventions, including implementation of vaccinations for liver and cervical cancers, tobacco control policies for smoking-related cancers, and low-tech early detection methods for cervical cancer, as well as pain relief at the palliative stage of cancer. Cancer 2012. © 2012 American Cancer Society. Source


Ma J.,Surveillance Research Program | Ward E.M.,American Cancer Society | Smith R.,American Cancer Society | Jemal A.,Surveillance Research Program
Cancer | Year: 2013

BACKGROUND: The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST), which was conducted between 2002 and 2009, demonstrated that screening with low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) reduced lung cancer mortality by 20% among screening-eligible populations compared with chest x-ray. In this article, the authors provide an estimate of the annual number of lung cancer deaths that can be averted by screening, assuming the screening regimens adopted in the NLST are fully implemented in the United States. METHODS: The annual number of lung cancer deaths that can be averted by screening was estimated as a product of the screening effect, the US population size (obtained from the 2010 US Census data), the prevalence of screening eligibility (estimated using the 2010 National Health Interview Survey [NHIS] data), and the lung cancer mortality rates among screening-eligible populations (estimated using the NHIS data from 2000-2004 and the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey linked mortality files). Analyses were performed separately by sex, age, and smoking status, with Poisson regression analysis used for mortality rate estimation. Uncertainty of the estimates of the number of avertable lung cancer deaths was quantified by simulation. RESULTS: Approximately 8.6 million Americans (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 8.0 million-9.2 million), including 5.2 million men (95% CI, 4.8 million-5.7 million) and 3.4 million women (95% CI, 3.0 million -3.8 million), were eligible for lung cancer screening in 2010. If the screening regimen adopted in the NLST was fully implemented among these screening-eligible US populations, a total of 12,250 (95% CI, 10,170-15,671) lung cancer deaths (8990 deaths in men and 3260 deaths in women) would be averted each year. CONCLUSIONS: The data from the current study indicate that LDCT screening could potentially avert approximately 12,000 lung cancer deaths per year in the United States. Further studies are needed to estimate the number of avertable lung cancer deaths and the cost-effectiveness of LDCT screening under different scenarios of risk, various screening frequencies, and various screening uptake rates. (See editorial on pages 000-000, this issue.) Cancer 2013. © 2012 American Cancer Society. In 2010, approximately 8.6 million Americans were eligible for low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) screening for lung cancer according to the criteria used in the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST). Approximately 12,000 lung cancer deaths could potentially be averted in the United States each year if LDCT screening is fully implemented among the entire screening-eligible population following the screening protocol and regimens adopted in the NLST. Copyright © 2012 American Cancer Society. Source


Simard E.P.,Surveillance Research Program | Fedewa S.,Health Services Research Program | Ma J.,Surveillance Research Program | Siegel R.,Surveillance Research Program | Jemal A.,Surveillance Research Program
Cancer | Year: 2012

BACKGROUND: Despite substantial declines in cervical cancer mortality because of widespread screening, socioeconomic status (SES) disparities persist. The authors examined trends in cervical cancer mortality rates and the risk of late-stage diagnoses by SES. METHODS: Using data from the National Vital Statistics System, trends in age-standardized mortality rates among women ages 25 to 64 years (1993-2007) by education level (≤12 years, 13-15 years, and a;circyen&16 years) and race/ethnicity for non-Hispanic white (NHW) women and non-Hispanic black (NHB) women in 26 states were assessed using log-linear regression. Rate ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess disparities between those with a;circ12 years versus ≤16 years of education during 1993 to 1995 and 2005 to 2007. Avertable deaths were calculated by applying mortality rates from the most educated women to others in 48 states. Trends in the risk of late-stage diagnosis by race/ethnicity and insurance status were evaluated in the National Cancer Data Base. RESULTS: Declines in mortality were steepest for those with the highest education levels (3.2% per year among NHW women and 6.8% per year among NHB women). Consequently, the education disparity widened between the periods 1993 to 1995 and 2005 to 2007 from 3.1 (95% CI, 2.4-3.9) to 4.4 (95% CI, 3.5-5.6) for NHW women and from 3.8 (95% CI, 2.0-7.0) to 5.6 (95% CI, 3.1-10.0) for NHB women. The risk of late-stage diagnosis increased for uninsured versus privately insured women over time. During 2007, 74% of cervical cancer deaths in the United States may have been averted by eliminating SES disparities. CONCLUSIONS: SES disparities in cervical cancer mortality and the risk of late-stage diagnosis increased over time. Most deaths in 2007 may have been averted by eliminating SES disparities. Copyright © 2012 American Cancer Society. Source

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