Surveillance and Health Services Research Program

Atlanta, GA, United States

Surveillance and Health Services Research Program

Atlanta, GA, United States
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Zheng Z.,Surveillance and Health Services Research Program | Jemal A.,Surveillance and Health Services Research Program | Lin C.C.,Surveillance and Health Services Research Program | Hu C.-Y.,The Surgical Center | Chang G.J.,The Surgical Center
Journal of the National Cancer Institute | Year: 2015

Background: Randomized clinical trials showed that laparoscopic colectomy (LC) is superior to open colectomy (OC) in short-term surgical outcomes; however, the generalizability among real-world patients is not clear. Methods: The National Cancer Data Base was used to identify stage I-III colon cancer patients age 18 to 84 years in 2010 and 2011. A propensity score analysis with 1:1 matching (PS) was used to avoid the effect of treatment selection bias. Patients were clustered at the hospital level for multilevel regression analyses. The main outcomes measured were 30-day mortality, unplanned readmissions, length of stay (LOS), and initiation of adjuvant chemotherapy among stage III patients. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: A total of 45 876 patients were analyzed, 18 717 (41%) LC and 27 159 (59%) OC. After PS matching, there were 18 230 patients in both groups and they were well balanced on their covariables. Compared with OC, LC showed consistent benefits in 30-day mortality (1.3% vs 2.3 %, odds ratio [OR] = 0.59, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.49 to 0.69, P <.001) and LOS (median 5 vs 6 days, incident rate ratio = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.8 to 0.84, P <.001). LC was also associated with a higher rate of adjuvant chemotherapy use in stage III patients (72.3% vs 67.0%, P <.001). LC was more likely to be performed by high-volume surgeons in high-volume hospitals, but there was no significant effect of the hospital/surgeon volume on short-term outcomes. Conclusion: In routine clinical practice, laparoscopic colectomy is associated with lower 30-day mortality, shorter length of stay, and greater likelihood of adjuvant chemotherapy initiation among stage III colon cancer patients when compared with open colectomy. © 2015 The Author.

Mullins C.D.,University of Maryland, Baltimore | Vandigo J.,University of Maryland, Baltimore | Zheng Z.,University of Maryland, Baltimore | Zheng Z.,Surveillance and Health Services Research Program | Wicks P.,PatientsLikeMe Inc.
Value in Health | Year: 2014

Evidence from clinical trials should contribute to informed decision making and a learning health care system. People frequently, however, find participating in clinical trials meaningless or disempowering. Moreover, people often do not incorporate trial results directly into their decision making. The lack of patient centeredness in clinical trials may be partially addressed through trial design. For example, Bayesian adaptive trials designed to adjust in a prespecified manner to changes in clinical practice could motivate people and their health care providers to view clinical trials as more applicable to real-world clinical decisions. The way in which clinical trials are designed can transform the evidence generation process to be more patient centered, providing people with an incentive to participate or continue participating in clinical trials. To achieve the transformation to patient-centeredness in clinical trial decisions, however, there is a need for transparent and reliable methods and education of trial investigators and site personnel. © 2014 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR).

Siegel R.L.,Surveillance and Health Services Research Program | Fedewa S.A.,Surveillance and Health Services Research Program | Miller K.D.,Surveillance and Health Services Research Program | Goding-Sauer A.,Surveillance and Health Services Research Program | And 3 more authors.
CA Cancer Journal for Clinicians | Year: 2015

Cancer is the leading cause of death among Hispanics/Latinos, who represent the largest racial/ethnic minority group in the United States, accounting for 17.4% (55.4 million/318 million) of the total US population in 2014. Every 3 years, the American Cancer Society reports on cancer statistics for Hispanics based on incidence data from the National Cancer Institute, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries and mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics. Among Hispanics in 2015, there will be an estimated 125,900 new cancer cases diagnosed and 37,800 cancer deaths. For all cancers combined, Hispanics have 20% lower incidence rates and 30% lower death rates compared with non-Hispanic whites (NHWs); however, death rates are slightly higher among Hispanics during adolescence (aged 15-19 years). Hispanic cancer rates vary by country of origin and are generally lowest in Mexicans, with the exception of infection-associated cancers. Liver cancer incidence rates in Hispanic men, which are twice those in NHW men, doubled from 1992 to 2012; however, rates in men aged younger than 50 years declined by 43% since 2003, perhaps a bellwether of future trends for this highly fatal cancer. Variations in cancer risk between Hispanics and NHWs, as well as between subpopulations, are driven by differences in exposure to cancer-causing infectious agents, rates of screening, and lifestyle patterns. Strategies for reducing cancer risk in Hispanic populations include increasing the uptake of preventive services (eg, screening and vaccination) and targeted interventions to reduce obesity, tobacco use, and alcohol consumption. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

Chen W.,National Cancer Center | Zheng R.,National Cancer Center | Baade P.D.,Cancer Council Queensland | Zhang S.,National Cancer Center | And 6 more authors.
CA Cancer Journal for Clinicians | Year: 2016

With increasing incidence and mortality, cancer is the leading cause of death in China and is a major public health problem. Because of China's massive population (1.37 billion), previous national incidence and mortality estimates have been limited to small samples of the population using data from the 1990s or based on a specific year. With high-quality data from an additional number of population-based registries now available through the National Central Cancer Registry of China, the authors analyzed data from 72 local, population-based cancer registries (2009-2011), representing 6.5% of the population, to estimate the number of new cases and cancer deaths for 2015. Data from 22 registries were used for trend analyses (2000-2011). The results indicated that an estimated 4292,000 new cancer cases and 2814,000 cancer deaths would occur in China in 2015, with lung cancer being the most common incident cancer and the leading cause of cancer death. Stomach, esophageal, and liver cancers were also commonly diagnosed and were identified as leading causes of cancer death. Residents of rural areas had significantly higher age-standardized (Segi population) incidence and mortality rates for all cancers combined than urban residents (213.6 per 100,000 vs 191.5 per 100,000 for incidence; 149.0 per 100,000 vs 109.5 per 100,000 for mortality, respectively). For all cancers combined, the incidence rates were stable during 2000 through 2011 for males (+0.2% per year; P =.1), whereas they increased significantly (+2.2% per year; P <.05) among females. In contrast, the mortality rates since 2006 have decreased significantly for both males (-1.4% per year; P <.05) and females (-1.1% per year; P <.05). Many of the estimated cancer cases and deaths can be prevented through reducing the prevalence of risk factors, while increasing the effectiveness of clinical care delivery, particularly for those living in rural areas and in disadvantaged populations. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

Lin C.C.,Surveillance and Health Services Research Program | Gray P.J.,Harvard University | Jemal A.,Surveillance and Health Services Research Program | Efstathiou J.A.,Harvard University
Journal of the National Cancer Institute | Year: 2015

Background: Clinically lymph node-positive (cN+) prostate cancer (PCa) is an often-fatal disease. Its optimal management remains largely undefined given a lack of prospective, randomized data to inform practice. We sought to describe modern practice patterns in the management of cN+ PCa and assess the effect of adding radiation therapy (RT) to androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) on survival using the National Cancer Data Base. Methods: Patients with cN+ PCa and without distant metastases diagnosed between 2004 and 2011 were included. Five-year overall survival for patients diagnosed between 2004 and 2006 and treated with ADT alone or ADT+RT were compared. Propensity score (PS) matching was used to balance baseline characteristics, and Cox multivariate regression analysis was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for all-cause mortality. Results: Of 3540 total patients, 32.2% were treated with ADT alone and 51.4% received ADT+RT. Compared with ADT alone, patients treated with ADT+RT were younger and more likely to have private insurance, lower comorbidity scores, higher Gleason scores, and lower PSA values. After PS matching, 318 patients remained in each group. Compared with ADT alone, ADT+RT was associated with a 50% decreased risk of five-year all-cause mortality (HR = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.37 to 0.67, two-sided P <. 001; crude OS rate: 71.5% vs 53.2%). Conclusions: Using a large national database, we have identified a statistically significant survival benefit for patients with cN+ PCa treated with ADT+RT. These data, if appropriately validated by randomized trials, suggest that a substantial proportion of such patients at high risk for prostate cancer death may be undertreated, warranting a reevaluation of current practice guidelines. © 2015 The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail:

Ma J.,Surveillance and Health Services Research Program | Siegel R.,Surveillance and Health Services Research Program | Jemal A.,Surveillance and Health Services Research Program
Journal of the National Cancer Institute | Year: 2013

Background Few studies have examined trends in pancreatic cancer death rates in the United States, and there have been no studies examining recent trends using age-period-cohort analysis. Methods Annual percentage change in pancreatic cancer death rates was calculated for 1970 to 2009 by sex and race among adults aged 35 to 84 years using US mortality data provided by the National Center for Health Statistics and Joinpoint Regression. Age-period-cohort modeling was performed to evaluate the changes in cohort and period effects. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results In white men, pancreatic cancer death rates decreased by 0.7% per year from 1970 to 1995 and then increased by 0.4% per year through 2009. Among white women, rates increased slightly from 1970 to 1984, stabilized until the late 1990s, then increased by 0.5% per year through 2009. In contrast, the rates among blacks increased between 1970 and the late 1980s (women) or early 1990s (men) and then decreased thereafter. Age-period-cohort analysis showed that pancreatic cancer death risk was highest for the 1900 to 1910 birth cohort in men and the 1920 to 1930 birth cohort in women and there was a statistically significant increase in period effects since the late 1990s in both white men and white women (two-sided Wald test, P < .001). Conclusions In the United States, whites and blacks experienced opposite trends in pancreatic cancer death rates between 1970 and 2009 that are largely unexplainable by known risk factors. This study underscores the needs for urgent action to curb the increasing trends of pancreatic cancer in whites and for better understanding of the etiology of this disease. © The Author 2013.

Quek R.G.W.,Emory University | Master V.A.,Emory University | Ward K.C.,Emory University | Lin C.C.,Surveillance and Health Services Research Program | And 3 more authors.
Cancer | Year: 2013

BACKGROUND Prostate cancer treatment choices have been shown to vary by physician and patient characteristics. For patients with low-risk, clinically localized prostate cancer, the authors examined the impact of their clinical, sociodemographic, and radiation oncologists' (RO) characteristics on the likelihood that the patients would receive combined external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy, a treatment regimen that is at variance with clinical guidelines. METHODS The Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER)-Medicare linked database and the American Medical Association Physician Masterfile were used in a retrospective analysis of 5531 patients with low-risk, clinically localized prostate cancer who were diagnosed between 2004 and 2007, and the 708 ROs who treated them. Hierarchical logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the relationship between patient and RO characteristics and the use of combined therapy within 6 months of diagnosis. RESULTS Overall, 356 patients (6.4%) received combined therapy. Nonclinical factors were found to be associated with combined therapy. After adjusting for patient and RO characteristics, the odds of receiving combined therapy for patients residing in Georgia were found to be significantly greater than for all other SEER regions. Black patients were significantly less likely to receive combined therapy (odds ratio, 0.62; 95% confidence interval, 0.40-0.96 [P =.03]) compared with white patients. In addition, ROs accounted for 36.6% of the variation in patients receiving combined therapy. CONCLUSIONS Geographic and sociodemographic factors were found to be significantly associated with guideline-discordant combined therapy for patients diagnosed with low-risk, clinically localized prostate cancer. Which RO a patient consults is important in determining whether they receive combined therapy. Cancer 2013;119:3619-3628. © 2013 American Cancer Society.

Lin C.C.,Surveillance and Health Services Research program | Virgo K.S.,Emory University
Medical Care | Year: 2014

BACKGROUND:: A prior assessment of concordance between the diagnosis month in SEER records and Medicare claims found reasonable agreement; however, no assessment of the impact of discordance on cancer treatment ascertainment was conducted. OBJECTIVES:: The aim of this study was to assess the concordance between the SEER diagnosis date (Sdx) and Medicare claim-derived diagnosis date and the impact of discordance on identification of treatment received. METHODS:: The first Medicare claim date with a cancer diagnosis (Mdx) was compared with the Sdx among patients diagnosed with breast, colorectal, or lung cancer. The Mdx was considered concordant with the Sdx if the Mdx was within 16 days. Claims within 4 months after both the Mdx and Sdx were examined to collect treatment information. Treatment rate agreement was measured by κ-statistics. RESULTS:: Among 50,731 breast, 51,025 colorectal, and 61,384 lung cancer patients, the Sdx and Mdx were concordant in 79%, 86%, and 73% of cases, respectively. Most discordant Mdx cases were identified in the month after the SEER diagnosis month. A small proportion of cases (7%-12%) preceded the SEER diagnosis month. Agreement for receipt of surgery was very good across all 3 cancer sites (κ>0.88) and was excellent for radiation therapy (κ>0.96). CONCLUSIONS:: Although most cases were concordant for both diagnosis date and treatment ascertainment, there was still a small proportion of cases discordant for both diagnosis date and treatment identification. This study underscores the importance of examining claims in the months preceding diagnosis in the SEER-Medicare dataset to ensure patients are appropriately selected for analysis. Copyright © 2013 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Ma J.,Surveillance and Health Services Research Program | Ward E.M.,American Cancer Society | Siegel R.L.,Surveillance and Health Services Research Program | Jemal A.,Surveillance and Health Services Research Program
JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association | Year: 2015

IMPORTANCE: A systematic and comprehensive evaluation of long-term trends in mortality is important for health planning and priority setting and for identifying modifiable factors that may contribute to the trends. OBJECTIVE: To examine temporal trends in deaths in the United States for all causes and for the 6 leading causes. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Joinpoint analysis of US national vital statistics data from 1969 through 2013. EXPOSURE: Causes of death. MAINOUTCOMES ANDMEASURES: Total and annual percent change in age-standardized death rates and years of potential life lost before age 75 years for all causes combined and for heart disease, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), stroke, unintentional injuries, and diabetes mellitus. RESULTS: Between 1969 and 2013, the age-standardized death rate per 100 000 decreased from 1278.8 to 729.8 for all causes (42.9% reduction; 95% CI, 42.8%-43.0%), from 156.8 to 36.0 for stroke (77.0% reduction; 95% CI, 76.9%-77.2%), from 520.4 to 169.1 for heart disease (67.5% reduction; 95% CI, 67.4%-67.6%), from 65.1 to 39.2 for unintentional injuries (39.8% reduction; 95% CI, 39.3%-40.3%), from 198.6 to 163.1 for cancer (17.9% reduction; 95% CI, 17.5%-18.2%), and from 25.3 to 21.1 for diabetes (16.5% reduction; 95% CI, 15.4%-17.5%). In contrast, the rate for COPD increased from 21.0 to 42.2 (100.6% increase; 95% CI, 98.2%-103.1%). However, during the last time segment detected by joinpoint analysis, death rate for COPD in men began to decrease and the declines in rates slowed for heart disease, stroke, and diabetes. For example, the annual decline for heart disease slowed from 3.9% (95% CI, 3.5%-4.2%) during the 2000-2010 period to 1.4% (95% CI, -3.4% to 0.6%) during the 2010-2013 period (P =.02 for slope difference). Between 1969 and 2013, age-standardized years of potential life lost per 1000 decreased from 1.9 to 1.6 for diabetes (14.5% reduction; 95% CI, 12.6%-16.4%), from 21.4 to 12.7 for cancer (40.6%; 95% CI, 40.2%-41.1%), from 19.9 to 10.4 for unintentional injuries (47.5%; 95% CI, 47.0%-48.0%), from 28.8 to 9.1 for heart disease (68.3%; 95% CI, 68.1%-68.5%), and from 6.0 to 1.5 for stroke (74.8%; 95% CI, 74.4%-75.3%). For COPD, the rate for years of potential life lost did not decrease over this time interval. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: According to death certificate data between 1969 and 2013, an overall decreasing trend in age-standardized death rate was observed for all causes combined, heart disease, cancer, stroke, unintentional injuries, and diabetes, although the rate of decrease appears to have slowed for heart disease, stroke, and diabetes. The death rate for COPD increased during this period. Copyright 2015 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.

Simard E.P.,Surveillance and Health Services Research Program | Torre L.A.,Surveillance and Health Services Research Program | Jemal A.,Surveillance and Health Services Research Program
Oral Oncology | Year: 2014

Objective To describe trends in country and sex-specific incidence rates of head and neck cancer (HNC), focusing on changes across calendar periods. Materials and Methods Sex and country specific rates of HNC were calculated for 1998-2002 and 1983-1987 using population-based registry data assembled by the Cancer Incidence in Five Continents (CI5) data system for 83 registries representing 35 countries. HNCs were categorized into three groups: oral cavity (including tongue and mouth), oropharynx (including tonsil and oropharynx) and other HNC (including larynx and poorly-specified tumors of the lip/oral cavity/pharynx). Age-standardized rates per 100,000 persons were calculated using the 1960 world standard population. Changes in rates between 1998-2002 and 1993-1987 were assessed. Results During these periods there was substantial global variation in HNC incidence trends by cancer site, country/registry and sex. Rates of oral cavity cancer increased among men and women in some European and Asian countries (Czech Republic, Slovak Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, the United Kingdom and Japan). In France and Italy, rates declined among men but increased among women. Oral cavity incidence rates declined among men and women in many Asian registries as well as in Canada and the United States. Oropharyngeal cancer rates increased among both men and women in a number of European countries (Belarus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Latvia, Norway and the United Kingdom) whereas they declined in some Asian countries. The largest increase in oropharyngeal rates was among Brazilian men. Rates of other HNCs varied substantially by country and sex. Conclusion From 1983-1987 to 1998-2002, trends in HNC rates differed by subtype, country and sex. Oral cavity cancer incidence rates increased in many countries with tobacco epidemics that are currently peaking and declined in areas where tobacco use peaked some time ago. In contrast, rates of oropharyngeal cancer increased in a number of countries where tobacco use has declined, perhaps due to the emerging importance of human papillomavirus infection. Continued monitoring of trends in incidence rates is needed to inform global cancer prevention strategies. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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