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Atlanta, GA, United States

Lansdorp-Vogelaar I.,Erasmus MC | Kuntz K.M.,University of Minnesota | Knudsen A.B.,Massachusetts General Hospital | Van Ballegooijen M.,Erasmus MC | And 2 more authors.
Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention | Year: 2012

Background: Considerable disparities exist in colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality rates between blacks and whites in the United States. We estimated how much of these disparities could be explained by differences in CRC screening and stage-specific relative CRC survival. Methods: We used the MISCAN-Colon microsimulation model to estimate CRC incidence and mortality rates in blacks, aged 50 years and older, from 1975 to 2007 assuming they had: (i) the same trends in screening rates as whites instead of observed screening rates (incidence and mortality); (ii) the same trends in stage-specific relative CRC survival rates as whites instead of observed (mortality only); and (iii) a combination of both. The racial disparities inCRC incidence and mortality rates attributable to differences in screening and/or stage-specific relative CRC survival were then calculated by comparing rates from these scenarios to the observed black rates. Results: Differences in screening accounted for 42% of disparity in CRC incidence and 19% of disparity in CRC mortality between blacks and whites. Thirty-six percent of the disparity in CRC mortality could be attributed to differences in stage-specific relative CRC survival. Together screening and survival explained a little more than 50% of the disparity in CRC mortality between blacks and whites. Conclusion: Differences in screening and relative CRC survival are responsible for a considerable proportion of the observed disparities in CRC incidence and mortality rates between blacks and whites. Impact: Enabling blacks to achieve equal access to care as whites could substantially reduce the racial disparities in CRC burden. ©2012 American Association for Cancer Research.

Jemal A.,Surveillance and Health Policy Research | Ward E.,Surveillance and Health Policy Research | Thun M.,American Cancer Society
PLoS ONE | Year: 2010

Background: The success of the "war on cancer" initiated in 1971 continues to be debated, with trends in cancer mortality variably presented as evidence of progress or failure. We examined temporal trends in death rates from all-cancer and the 19 most common cancers in the United States from 1970-2006. Methodology/Principal Findings: We analyzed trends in age-standardized death rates (per 100,000) for all cancers combined, the four most common cancers, and 15 other sites from 1970-2006 in the United States using joinpoint regression model. The age-standardized death rate for all-cancers combined in men increased from 249.3 in 1970 to 279.8 in 1990, and then decreased to 221.1 in 2006, yielding a net decline of 21% and 11% from the 1990 and 1970 rates, respectively. Similarly, the all-cancer death rate in women increased from 163.0 in 1970 to 175.3 in 1991 and then decreased to 153.7 in 2006, a net decline of 12% and 6% from the 1991 and 1970 rates, respectively. These decreases since 1990/91 translate to preventing of 561,400 cancer deaths in men and 205,700 deaths in women. The decrease in death rates from allcancers involved all ages and racial/ethnic groups. Death rates decreased for 15 of the 19 cancer sites, including the four major cancers, with lung, colorectum and prostate cancers in men and breast and colorectum cancers in women. Conclusions/Significance: Progress in reducing cancer death rates is evident whether measured against baseline rates in 1970 or in 1990. The downturn in cancer death rates since 1990 result mostly from reductions in tobacco use, increased screening allowing early detection of several cancers, and modest to large improvements in treatment for specific cancers. Continued and increased investment in cancer prevention and control, access to high quality health care, and research could accelerate this progress. © 2010 Jemal et al.

Hao Y.,Surveillance and Health Policy Research | Hao Y.,Battelle | Landrine H.,Behavioral Research, Inc. | Jemal A.,Surveillance and Health Policy Research | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health | Year: 2011

Background: Studies have found significant race/ethnic and age differences in receipt of adjuvant chemotherapy for stages III colon and II/III rectal cancers. Little is known about the role of neighbourhood factors in these disparities. Methods: The 4748 Black and White patients from the Georgia Comprehensive Cancer Registry were diagnosed with stages III colon and II/III rectal cancers between 2000 and 2004. Neighbourhood poverty, segregation (% Black residents) and rurality were linked to each patient using census tract identifiers. Multilevel analyses explored the role of neighbourhood characteristics and the nested association of patient race within categories of neighbourhoods in receipt of chemotherapy. Results: Odds of receiving chemotherapy for urban and suburban patients were 38% (95% CI 1.09 to 1.74) and 53% (95% CI 1.20 to 1.94) higher than for rural patients. However, odds of receiving chemotherapy for urban Black patients were 24% (95% CI 0.62 to 0.94) lower than for their White counterparts. Receipt of chemotherapy did not significantly differ between Blacks and Whites residing in suburban or rural areas. Conclusion: Black-White disparities in receipt of chemotherapy among Georgia colorectal cancer patients were confined to urban patients. Disparities in receipt of this treatment for rural patients were found irrespective of patient race. Our findings highlight geographic areas where targeted interventions might be needed.

Ang K.K.,University of Houston | Chen A.,Surveillance and Health Policy Research | Chen A.,Emory University | Curran Jr. W.J.,Emory University | And 14 more authors.
Cancer | Year: 2012

BACKGROUND: Detailed information about how patients with head and neck carcinoma (HNC) are treated across practice settings does not exist. The authors conducted a prospective, observational study to examine the patterns of care for a series of patients with newly diagnosed HNC in the United States and to test 2 hypotheses: 1) There is no difference in the pattern of care between community and academic settings; and 2) the results of major randomized clinical trials will change the pattern of care in both practice settings within 1 year of publication in peer-reviewed journals. METHODS: Patients aged ≥18 years were enrolled in the Longitudinal Oncology Registry of Head and Neck Carcinoma (LORHAN) after providing written informed consent if they had a confirmed diagnosis of new HNC and were scheduled to receive treatment other than surgery alone. RESULTS: Between 2005 and 2010, 100 centers enrolled 4243 patients, including 2612 patients (62%) from academic investigators and 1631 patients (38%) from community centers. Initial treatments were radiation with concurrent chemotherapy (30%) or cetuximab (9%), adjuvant radiotherapy (21%), induction chemotherapy (16%), and other (24%). Intensity modulated radiation therapy was the dominant radiation technique (84%). Single-agent cisplatin was prescribed in nearly half of patients and more often in academic centers (53% vs 43% of patients; P <.0001). Single-agent cetuximab was the next most common drug used (19%) and was prescribed more frequently in community settings (24% vs 17%; P =.0001). The data rejected the 2 prospective hypotheses. CONCLUSIONS: LORHAN documented differences in patient characteristics and treatments between community and academic settings for a large series of patients in the United States. © 2012 American Cancer Society.

Jemal A.,Surveillance and Health Policy Research | Siegel R.,Surveillance and Health Policy Research | Xu J.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Ward E.,Surveillance and Health Policy Research
CA Cancer Journal for Clinicians | Year: 2010

Each year, the American Cancer Society estimates the number of new cancer cases and deaths expected in the United States in the current year and compiles the most recent data regarding cancer incidence, mortality, and survival based on incidence data from the National Cancer Institute, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries and mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics. Incidence and death rates are age-standardized to the 2000 US standard million population. A total of 1,529,560 new cancer cases and 569,490 deaths from cancer are projected to occur in the United States in 2010. Overall cancer incidence rates decreased in the most recent time period in both men (1.3% per year from 2000 to 2006) and women (0.5% per year from 1998 to 2006), largely due to decreases in the 3 major cancer sites in men (lung, prostate, and colon and rectum [colorectum]) and 2 major cancer sites in women (breast and colorectum). This decrease occurred in all racial/ethnic groups in both men and women with the exception of American Indian/Alaska Native women, in whom rates were stable. Among men, death rates for all races combined decreased by 21.0% between 1990 and 2006, with decreases in lung, prostate, and colorectal cancer rates accounting for nearly 80% of the total decrease. Among women, overall cancer death rates between 1991 and 2006 decreased by 12.3%, with decreases in breast and colorectal cancer rates accounting for 60% of the total decrease. The reduction in the overall cancer death rates translates to the avoidance of approximately 767,000 deaths from cancer over the 16-year period. This report also examines cancer incidence, mortality, and survival by site, sex, race/ethnicity, geographic area, and calendar year. Although progress has been made in reducing incidence and mortality rates and improving survival, cancer still accounts for more deaths than heart disease in persons younger than 85 years. Further progress can be accelerated by applying existing cancer control knowledge across all segments of the population and by supporting new discoveries in cancer prevention, early detection, and treatment. © 2010 American Cancer Society, Inc.

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