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Guildford, United Kingdom

Carroll M.R.R.,Surrey Research Park | Seaman H.E.,Egerton University | Halloran S.P.,Egerton University
Clinical Biochemistry | Year: 2014

Worldwide, colorectal (CRC) is the third most common form of cancer, after lung and breast cancer, and the fourth most common cause of cancer death, although in developed countries CRC incidence is higher and it accounts for an even higher proportion of cancer deaths. Successful treatment of early-stage CRC confers substantial survival advantage, and there is now overwhelming evidence that screening average-risk individuals for CRC reduces the incidence and disease-specific mortality. In spite of considerable research for new biomarkers for CRC, the detection of blood in faeces remains the most effective screening tool. The best evidence to date for population-based CRC screening comes from randomised-controlled trials that used a guaiac-based faecal occult blood test (gFOBt) as the first-line screening modality, whereby test-positive individuals are referred for follow-up investigations, usually colonoscopy. A major innovation in the last ten years or so has been the development of other more analytically sensitive and specific screening techniques for blood in faeces. The faecal immunochemical test for haemoglobin (FIT) confers substantial benefits over gFOBt in terms of analytical sensitivity, specificity and practicality and FIT are now recommended for CRC screening by the European guidelines for quality assurance in colorectal cancer screening and diagnosis. The challenge internationally is to develop high quality CRC screening programmes for which uptake is high. This is especially important for developing countries witnessing an increase in the incidence of CRC as populations adopt more westernised lifestyles. This review describes the tests available for CRC screening and how they are being used worldwide. The reader will gain an understanding of developments in CRC screening and issues that arise in choosing the most appropriate screening test (or tests) for organised population-based screening internationally and optimising the performance of the chosen test (or tests). Whilst a wide range of literature has been cited, this is not a systematic review. The authors provide FOBT CRC screening for a population of 14.6 million in the south of England and the senior author (SPH) was the lead author of the European guidelines for quality assurance in colorectal cancer screening and diagnosis and leads the World Endoscopy Organization Colorectal Cancer Committee's Expert Working Group on 'FIT for Screening'. © 2014 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists.


Clough R.,University of Plymouth | Harrington C.F.,Surrey Research Park | Hill S.J.,University of Plymouth | Madrid Y.,Complutense University of Madrid | Tyson J.F.,University of Massachusetts Amherst
Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry | Year: 2016

This is the eighth Atomic Spectrometry Update (ASU) to focus on advances in elemental speciation and covers a period of approximately 12 months from December 2014. This ASU review deals with all aspects of the analytical atomic spectrometry speciation methods developed for: the determination of oxidation states; organometallic compounds; coordination compounds; metal and heteroatom-containing biomolecules, including metalloproteins, proteins, peptides and amino acids; and the use of metal-tagging to facilitate detection via atomic spectrometry. The review does not cover fractionation, which is sometimes termed operationally defined speciation. As with all ASU reviews the focus of the research reviewed includes those methods that incorporate atomic spectrometry as the measurement technique. However, because speciation analysis is inherently focused on the relationship between the metal(loid) atom and the organic moiety it is bound to, or incorporated within, atomic spectrometry alone cannot be the sole analytical approach of interest. For this reason molecular detection techniques are also included where they have provided a complementary approach to speciation analysis. As in previous years, As and Se speciation continues to dominate the current literature and there has also been an increase in the number of publications concerning solid state speciation. This is presumably due to the increase in the number of synchrotron facilities available and a greater awareness of their potential for speciation studies. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2016.


Carroll M.R.,Surrey Research Park
Clinical biochemistry | Year: 2014

Worldwide, colorectal (CRC) is the third most common form of cancer, after lung and breast cancer, and the fourth most common cause of cancer death, although in developed countries CRC incidence is higher and it accounts for an even higher proportion of cancer deaths. Successful treatment of early-stage CRC confers substantial survival advantage, and there is now overwhelming evidence that screening average-risk individuals for CRC reduces the incidence and disease-specific mortality. In spite of considerable research for new biomarkers for CRC, the detection of blood in faeces remains the most effective screening tool. The best evidence to date for population-based CRC screening comes from randomised-controlled trials that used a guaiac-based faecal occult blood test (gFOBt) as the first-line screening modality, whereby test-positive individuals are referred for follow-up investigations, usually colonoscopy. A major innovation in the last ten years or so has been the development of other more analytically sensitive and specific screening techniques for blood in faeces. The faecal immunochemical test for haemoglobin (FIT) confers substantial benefits over gFOBt in terms of analytical sensitivity, specificity and practicality and FIT are now recommended for CRC screening by the European guidelines for quality assurance in colorectal cancer screening and diagnosis. The challenge internationally is to develop high quality CRC screening programmes for which uptake is high. This is especially important for developing countries witnessing an increase in the incidence of CRC as populations adopt more westernised lifestyles. This review describes the tests available for CRC screening and how they are being used worldwide. The reader will gain an understanding of developments in CRC screening and issues that arise in choosing the most appropriate screening test (or tests) for organised population-based screening internationally and optimising the performance of the chosen test (or tests). Whilst a wide range of literature has been cited, this is not a systematic review. The authors provide FOBT CRC screening for a population of 14.6 million in the south of England and the senior author (SPH) was the lead author of the European guidelines for quality assurance in colorectal cancer screening and diagnosis and leads the World Endoscopy Organization Colorectal Cancer Committee's Expert Working Group on 'FIT for Screening'. Copyright © 2014 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Molloy C.,Surrey Research Park
American Laboratory | Year: 2013

Translational medicine research (TransMed) is a new environment in which groups of stakeholders come together to review increasingly complex data with the goals of improving outcomes, getting more value from health-care spending, and developing precision therapeutics. The modern generation of electronic laboratory notebooks (ELNs) offer not just transactional efficiency, but enable TransMed. The modern ELN is an enterprise data system with configurable user interfaces, analytics, and process control. The ELN needs process execution to govern the wet work and (even) drive LIMS to manage samples and generate the data. It needs to enable all researchers to orchestrate and capture the output from bioanalytical work flows written and optimized by bioinformaticians. It also must store sample-centric 'omics data and patient-centric clinical data in data stores that are built to house them. In addition, the ELN should allow secure yet easy data searching, review, and sharing. Last, it must be able to work in regulated and unregulated environments and provide an audit trail for all data items.


Young K.,Royal Surrey County Hospital | Rowe-Jones J.,Surrey Research Park
Current Opinion in Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery | Year: 2011

Purpose of review: To describe the contemporary techniques used for septal saddle nose and, based on these, present our approaches for correction of a spectrum of deformity severities. Recent findings: A review of different techniques currently in practice. These reflect greater emphasis on nasal structural framework repair rather than disguise and the use of autografts rather than allografts. Summary: We present our classification of septal saddle deformity, demonstrating that this condition requires a flexible surgical approach with different techniques required depending on the extent of the defect. © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

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