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Bradley E.A.,Surrey Place Center | Bradley E.A.,University of Toronto | Ames C.S.,Kings College London | Bolton P.F.,Kings College London
Canadian Journal of Psychiatry | Year: 2011

Objective: To determine whether psychiatric and behavioural disorders occur more frequently in adolescents with autism and intellectual disabilities, compared with those without autism. Method: A population-based case-control study was undertaken and 36 adolescents with autism were pairwise matched for age and IQ to 36 adolescents without autism. Caregivers were interviewed with structured psychiatric interview and questionnaire measures of psychiatric and behavioural problems. Results: Compulsive behaviours and stereotypies were significantly more common in adolescents with autism. Conclusions: Adolescents with autism are prone to compulsive behaviours and stereotypies as well as specific manifestations of anxiety, fears, and phobias. Source

Lunsky Y.,Center for Addiction and Mental Health | Gracey C.,University of Manchester | Bradley E.,Surrey Place Center | Koegl C.,University of Cambridge | Durbin J.,Center for Addiction and Mental Health
Journal of Intellectual Disability Research | Year: 2011

Background This study compares outpatients with intellectual disability (ID) receiving specialised services to outpatients with ID receiving general services in Ontario's tertiary mental healthcare system in terms of demographics, symptom profile, strengths and resources, and clinical service needs.Methods A secondary analysis of Colorado Client Assessment Record data collected from all tertiary psychiatric hospitals in the province was completed for a stratified random sample of 246 outpatients identified as having ID, from both specialised and general programmes.Results Individuals with ID in specialised programmes differed from patients with ID in general programmes with regard to demographics, diagnostic profile, symptom presentation and recommended level of care.Conclusions Further research is required to determine why individuals access some services over others and to evaluate whether specialised services are more appropriate for certain subgroups with ID than others. © 2010 The Authors. Journal Compilation © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source

Zhao Y.,Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center | Hill J.M.,Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center | Bhattacharjee S.,Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center | Percy M.E.,University of Toronto | And 3 more authors.
Frontiers in Neurology | Year: 2014

The membrane-integral beta amyloid precursor protein (βAPP) is probably the most intensively studied brain cell protein in all of neurobiology. βAPP is processed by tandem beta-gamma secretase cleavage into 42 amino acid amyloid (Aβ42) peptides whose progressive accumulation is one distinguishing feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathology [1-3]. While homeostatic amounts of Aβ42 peptide generation and clearance seem to be tolerated by brain cells, their over-abundance, aggregation into higher order structures and inability of brain cells to effectively phagocytose and clear these intensely hydrophobic peptides contributes to the pro-inflammatory and neurotoxic pathology of AD. Aluminum, as an extremely high charge density cation (Z2/r=18) has the remarkable capability to both (1) aggregate and compact Aβ42 peptide monomers into higher order, more neurotoxic oligomeric and fibrillar structures, and (2) impair, at the molecular-genetic level, the cellular machinery responsible for Aβ42 peptide monomer phagocytosis and clearance from the cell [4-13]. This opinion paper will briefly assess these two remarkable, functionally overlapping, and decidedly neurotoxic properties of aluminum - (1) on the ability of physiologically realistic amounts of aluminum to aggregate Aβ42 peptide monomers into higher order dimeric, oligomeric and fibrillar structures, and (2) on the ability of aluminum to impair, at nanomolar concentrations and at the level of epigenetic regulation, microglial cell-mediated clearance mechanisms of Aβ42 peptides from the extracellular space of the brain and CNS. © 2014 Zhao, Hill, Bhattacharjee, Percy, Pogue and Lukiw. Source

Nash K.,University of Toronto | Stevens S.,University of Toronto | Greenbaum R.,Surrey Place Center | Weiner J.,University of Toronto | And 2 more authors.
Child Neuropsychology | Year: 2015

An extensive body of literature has documented executive function (EF) impairments in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD); however, few studies have aimed specifically at improving EF. One treatment program that shows promise for children with FASD is the Alert Program for Self-Regulation®, which is a 12-week treatment specifically designed to target self-regulation, a component of EF. The present study sought to examine if Alert would produce improvements in self-regulation that would generalize to other aspects of EF, behavior, and social skills in children with FASD. Twenty-five children aged 8-12 years diagnosed with an FASD were assigned in alternating sequence to either an immediate treatment (TXT) or a delayed treatment control (DTC) group. Both groups received a comprehensive evaluation of EF at baseline and upon completing therapy (TXT), or after a 12- to 14-week interval from baseline (DTC). Parents also completed questionnaires assessing EF and behavior at both time points. For the TXT group only, parent questionnaires were readministered at 6-month follow-up. At the 12-week follow-up, the TXT group displayed significant improvements in inhibitory control and social cognition. Parents of children in the TXT group reported improved behavioral and emotional regulation, as well as reduced externalizing behavior problems. These behavioral improvements along with further improved parent-rated inhibitory control was maintained at the 6-month follow-up. The EF disabilities in children with FASD can be remediated through a targeted treatment approach aimed at facilitating self-regulation skills. © 2014 Taylor & Francis. Source

Flanagan H.E.,York University | Flanagan H.E.,5850 5980 University Avenue | Perry A.,York University | Freeman N.L.,Surrey Place Center
Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders | Year: 2012

File review data were used to explore the impact of a large-scale publicly funded Intensive Behavioral Intervention (IBI) program for young children with autism. Outcomes were compared for 61 children who received IBI and 61 individually matched children from a waitlist comparison group. In addition, predictors of better cognitive outcomes were explored (n = 142). Although random assignment did not take place, a standardized waitlist management system was used that did not include any prioritization other than time of referral. Groups did not differ significantly on available measures at intake. The treatment period tended to be longer than the waitlist period and this difference was controlled in analyses. At exit, the IBI group had better outcomes in all measured areas, with milder autism severity, higher adaptive functioning, and higher cognitive skills. Younger initial age predicted better cognitive outcomes in the IBI group but not the Waitlist group. Higher initial adaptive skills predicted better outcomes similarly in the two groups. Results support the effectiveness of community-based IBI and suggest that earlier age at treatment onset may increase the likelihood of better outcomes relative to comparison conditions. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

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