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Trento, Italy

Carotenuto P.,Oncological Research Center Mercogliano | Roma C.,Oncological Research Center Mercogliano | Rachiglio A.M.,Oncological Research Center Mercogliano | Botti G.,Surgical Pathology Unit | And 3 more authors.
Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression | Year: 2010

Triple negative breast cancer is a subtype of breast cancer that lacks expression of an estrogen receptor (ER), a progesterone receptor (PR), and HER2. It is characterized by its unique molecular profile, aggressive behavior, and distinct pattern of metastasis. Epidemiological studies show a high prevalence of triple negative breast cancer among younger women and those of African descent. Although sensitive to chemotherapy, early relapse is common, and a predilection for visceral metastasis, including brain metastasis, has been described. Gene-expression profiling approaches demonstrated that triple negative breast cancer is a heterogeneous group of diseases composed of different, molecularly distinct subtypes. Although not synonymous, the majority of triple negative breast cancers carry the "basal-like" molecular profile on gene-expression arrays. However, several studies have shown that triple negative breast cancer includes tumors with a non-basal expression profile and, in particular, the "normal-breast," the "multiple marker negative," and the recently identified "claudin-negative" subtypes. Target-based agents, including epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) inhibitors, are currently in clinical trials and hold promise in the treatment of this aggressive disease. © 2010 by Begell House, Inc. Source

Pizzi M.,University of Padua | Fassan M.,University of Padua | Balistreri M.,University of Padua | Galligioni A.,University of Padua | And 2 more authors.
Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology | Year: 2012

The histologic subtyping of the 2 major histotypes of nonsmall-cell lung cancer, that is, adenocarcinoma (AdC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), is crucial to therapeutic decision making, but making this distinction can be a challenge. Querying the Oncomine database pinpointed anterior gradient 2 (AGR2) as being upregulated in lung AdC. On applying both quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry, this study tested the reliability of AGR2 status as a histotype-specific marker of lung AdC. AGR2 immunohistochemistry expression was semiquantitatively assessed in 120 cases of lung cancer (60 AdCs, 60 SCCs); 35 additional tissue samples from non-neoplastic lungs were considered as normal controls. To further support our findings, the expression of AGR2 mRNA was tested by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in 30 of the considered cases (10 AdCs, 10 SCCs, and 10 normal lungs). AGR2 was consistently expressed in normal bronchial/bronchiolar columnar cells. Cases of AdC always expressed the protein (staining moderately in 30% and strongly in 70%), whereas none of the SCC cases strongly expressed AGR2 (staining was negative in 55%, weak in 33%, and moderate in 12%). AGR2 mRNA was significantly overexpressed in AdCs by comparison with SCCs (P=0.003) or normal lung tissue (P=0.002). AGR2 is upregulated in lung AdC (by comparison with either SCC or normal bronchial/bronchiolar columnar cells). AGR2 protein expression may support the histologic subtyping of nonsmall-cell lung cancer and be of clinical value in differentiating lung AdC from SCC. © 2011 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

Della Pepa C.,Biomedical University of Rome | Tonini G.,Biomedical University of Rome | Santini D.,Biomedical University of Rome | Losito S.,Surgical Pathology Unit | And 5 more authors.
Cancer Treatment Reviews | Year: 2015

Low Grade Serous Ovarian Carcinoma, LGSOC, is certainly a rare disease, accounting for only a small proportion of all ovarian carcinomas, nevertheless in the last decade we have acquired many data about its molecular and clinical features and it has been largely accepted that it has distinct pathogenesis, genetic aberrations and clinical behavior compared to High Grade Serous Ovarian Carcinoma, HGSOC, which is the most common ovarian cancer histotype. A large number of series pointed out the high rate of KRAS and BRAF mutations in LGSOCs and Serous Borderline Tumors, SBLTs, in contrast with their rarity in HGSOC. Such finding, together with the recurrent observation of focus of LGSOC associated with areas of SBLT in the same lesion, led to abandon the traditional histology classification, defining three types of serous carcinomas, in favor of a new dualistic grading system which recognizes only LG and HG carcinomas corresponding to distinct tumorigenesis pathways, the former based on KRAS/BRAF mutations and alteration of the MAP/ERK signaling, the latter characterized by early genetic instability and wild type status of KRAS and BRAF. LGSOC shows favorable overall survival, compared to general ovarian cancer population, but worrying resistance to conventional treatments. MEK inhibitors are emerging as active agents and may well represent an effective therapeutic strategy in the near future. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Marando A.,University of Insubria | D'Ambrosio G.,Surgical Pathology Unit | Catanzaro F.,Urology Unit | La Rosa S.,Ospedale di Circolo | And 2 more authors.
Virchows Archiv | Year: 2013

IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a recently recognized multi-organ fibro-inflammatory lesion characterized by elevated IgG4 serum levels and mass-forming lesions. This condition shows similar histological features independently of the site of origin including storiform fibrosis, obliterative phlebitis, and dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate with a conspicuous IgG4-positive plasma cell component. Since this disease has only recently been categorized as a single specific nosologic entity, lesions with these typical morphological features have previously been named in different ways, creating some confusion and making it difficult to identify cases published in the literature. Lesions with features suggesting IgG4-RDs have very rarely been reported in the ureter, and they have been named using the terms "inflammatory pseudotumor" and "idiopathic segmental ureteritis." Herein, we describe the clinicopathological features of ureteral IgG4-RD found in two different patients. An 82-year-old female and a 77-year-old male underwent ureteral resection due to severe ureteral wall thickness and lumen stenosis suggestive of urothelial carcinoma. However, histological examinations showed transmural fibro-inflammatory lesions, with abundant IgG4 plasma cells intermixed with histiocytes, lymphocytes, fibroblasts, and scattered eosinophils. We have also accurately reviewed the literature in order to identify, among lesions diagnosed with different names, examples of ureteral IgG4-related lesions to give the reader a comprehensive overview of this relatively rare inflammatory disease. We suggest using the name "ureteral IgG4-RD" for those lesions showing the same morphological features as IgG4-RDs located elsewhere. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Buggi F.,Breast Unit | Folli S.,Breast Unit | Curcio A.,Breast Unit | Casadei-Giunchi D.,Oncology Unit | And 4 more authors.
Annals of Oncology | Year: 2012

Background: Invasive multiple breast cancers with a single histological feature (MBCSH) are routinely assessed for biological parameters to indicate adjuvant treatments only in the largest invasive carcinomas. However, the heterogeneity of individual foci in multiple carcinomas has not been widely studied. We analyzed whether such biological features are differently expressed in different MBCSH foci. Patient and methods: One hundred and thirteen invasive MBCSH were tested over a 5-year period. The expression of estrogen (ER) and progesterone (PgR) receptors, Ki-67 proliferative index, expression of HER2 and tumor grading were prospectively determined in each tumor focus, and mismatches among foci were recorded. Results: Mismatches in ER status were present in 5 (4.4%) cases and PgR in 18 (15.9%) cases. Mismatches in tumor grading were present in 21 cases (18.6%), proliferative index (Ki-67) in 17 (15%) cases and HER2 status in 11 (9.7%) cases. Conclusions: In our experience, invasive MBCSH showed heterogeneity among foci. In our clinical practice, such assessment led to 14 (12.4%) patients receiving different adjuvant treatments compared with what would have been indicated if we had only taken into account the biologic status of the primary tumor. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. Source

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