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Paterson E.L.,Center for Cancer Biology | Paterson E.L.,University of Adelaide | Kazenwadel J.,Center for Cancer Biology | Bert A.G.,Center for Cancer Biology | And 5 more authors.
Neoplasia (United States) | Year: 2013

Cancer progression is a complex series of events thought to incorporate the reversible developmental process of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). In vitro, the microRNA-200 family maintains the epithelial phenotype by posttranscriptionally inhibiting the E-cadherin repressors, ZEB1 and ZEB2. Here, we used in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry to assess expression of miR-200 and EMT biomarkers in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded human colorectal adenocarcinomas. In addition, laser capture microdissection and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction were employed to quantify levels of miR-200 in the normal epithelium, tumor core, invasive front, and stroma. We find that miR-200 is downregulated at the invasive front of colorectal adenocarcinomas that have destroyed and invaded beyond the basement membrane. However, regional lymph node metastases and vascular carcinoma deposits show strong expression of miR-200, suggesting this family of miRNAs is involved in the recapitulation of the primary tumor phenotype at metastatic sites. In contrast, adenomas and adenocarcinomas with intact basement membranes showed uniform miR-200 expression from the tumor core to the tumor-host interface. Taken together, these data support the involvement of EMT and mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET) in the metastasis cascade and show that miR-200 is downregulated in the initial stages of stromal invasion but is restored at metastatic sites. © 2013 Neoplasia Press, Inc. All rights reserved.

Smith E.,University of Adelaide | Kelly J.J.,University of Adelaide | Ruskiewicz A.R.,Surgical Pathology | Sullivan T.,University of Adelaide | And 2 more authors.
Annals of Surgery | Year: 2010

Objective: We investigated the relationship between reflux and aberrant deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) methylation, comparing methylation in the columnar epithelium following successful fundoplication to that in subjects with a failed fundoplication. Summary Background Data: Gastroesophageal reflux is the main risk factor for Barrett esophagus and adenocarcinoma. In these diseases, there is a high level of DNA methylation. Methods: We enrolled 41 patients with Barrett esophagus and a fundoplication at least 5 years earlier for a 24-hour pH study, endoscopy, and collection of biopsies. Biopsies were obtained from 17 Barrett esophagus subjects who had not undergone esophageal surgery. Results: At the time of the study, 31 subjects were pH normal, 10 abnormal. Columnar biopsies were collected from 21 of the pH normal and 9 pH abnormal subjects, and all no surgery subjects. Complete regression of columnar mucosa was seen in 7 subjects with pH normal and 1 with pH abnormal. The length of Barrett esophagus did not differ between groups preoperatively, but was significantly less at the time of the study in the pH normal compared with pH abnormal or no surgery groups. Significantly, fewer genes were methylated in the pH normal than the pH abnormal or no surgery groups, which did not differ from each other. The number of methylated genes correlated with increased reflux, intestinal metaplasia, and increased columnar-lined esophagus length, but not acid-suppression medication. Conclusions: Fundoplication that reduces reflux to normal levels can lead to regression of the columnar mucosa. Reflux is associated with aberrant DNA methylation, and control of reflux reduces deleterious genomic changes associated with cancer. Copyright © 2010 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Gustafsson J.O.R.,University of Adelaide | Oehler M.K.,University of Adelaide | Ruszkiewicz A.,Surgical Pathology | McColl S.R.,University of Adelaide | Hoffmann P.,University of Adelaide
International Journal of Molecular Sciences | Year: 2011

MALDI imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS) allows acquisition of mass data for metabolites, lipids, peptides and proteins directly from tissue sections. IMS is typically performed either as a multiple spot profiling experiment to generate tissue specific mass profiles, or a high resolution imaging experiment where relative spatial abundance for potentially hundreds of analytes across virtually any tissue section can be measured. Crucially, imaging can be achieved without prior knowledge of tissue composition and without the use of antibodies. In effect MALDI-IMS allows generation of molecular data which complement and expand upon the information provided by histology including immuno-histochemistry, making its application valuable to both cancer biomarker research and diagnostics. The current state of MALDI-IMS, key biological applications to ovarian cancer research and practical considerations for analysis of peptides and proteins on ovarian tissue are presented in this review. © 2010 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Pasquinelli G.,University of Bologna | Papadopulos F.,University of Bologna | Nigro M.,Surgical Pathology
Ultrastructural Pathology | Year: 2010

Nanobacteria are controversial infectious agents with nanometric size, the capacity to nucleate hydroxyapatite and grow in culture, and present in human diseases associated with calcification and psammoma bodies. The authors report a case of pathological placental calcifications associated with nanobacteria. Electron microscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy imaging were used to recognize 160-nm-sized calcium-free bodies mainly presenting as extracellular fibrillary tangles and 500-nm-sized calcified bodies; they encrusted the syncito-trophoblast basal membrane and aggregated into miniaturized psammoma bodies. Nanobacteria may be composed of a prionoid protein with self-assembling and self-propagating abilities whose growth is associated with the formation of psammoma bodies. © 2010 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.

Shinohara T.,Surgical Pathology
Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine | Year: 2015

The topical administration of rebamipide (Mucosta®), an antiulcer agent, clinically increases the mucin level of tear film. The aim of this study was to report the histological changes of goblet cells following the topical administration of rebamipide to a patient with nevus of the lacrimal caruncle. A 62-year-old male exhibited a pigmented nodule located in the lacrimal caruncle in the left eye. An excisional biopsy and subsequent surgical resection were conducted at the caruncle, prior to and three months after topical rebamipide administration. Histologically, a biopsy specimen revealed a pigmented nevus beneath the caruncle epithelium containing a few goblet cells [4 cells/high power field (HPF)]. A few nevus cells were present at the surgical margin. By contrast, the secondary resected specimen obtained three months after the initiation of topical rebamipide treatment revealed the epithelium and nevus, where numerous goblet cells were present (28 cells/HPF), and mucin-like substances were markedly secreted from the goblet cells. Topical rebamipide markedly increased the number of goblet cells and stimulated the secretion of mucin-like substances in the caruncular tissue of a human patient. These results suggest that topical rebamipide is useful in patients following surgery and/or biopsy to support tissue repair of the ocular surface. © 2015, Spandidos Publications. All rights reserved.

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