PubMed | Clinical Center at the National Institutes of Health, Urologic, Ohio State University, U.S. National Institutes of Health and Surgical Neurology Branch and.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of neurosurgery | Year: 2016
Peritumoral cysts are frequently associated with CNS hemangioblastomas and often underlie neurological morbidity and mortality. To determine their natural history and clinical impact, the authors prospectively analyzed hemangioblastoma-associated peritumoral cysts in patients with von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease.Patients with VHL disease who had 2 or more years of follow-up and who were enrolled in a prospective study at the National Institutes of Health were included. Serial prospectively acquired laboratory, genetic, imaging, and clinical data were analyzed.One hundred thirty-two patients (of 225 in the VHL study with at least 2 years of follow-up) had peritumoral cysts that were followed for more than 2 years (total of 292 CNS peritumoral cysts). The mean age at study entrance was 37.4 13.1 years ([mean SD], median 37.9, range 12.3-65.1 years). The mean follow-up was 7.0 1.7 years (median 7.3, range 2.1-9.0 years). Over the study period, 121 of the 292 peritumoral cysts (41.4%) became symptomatic. Development of new cysts was associated with a larger number cysts at study enrollment (p = 0.002) and younger age (p < 0.0001). Cyst growth rate was associated with anatomical location (cerebellum cysts grew faster than spine and brainstem cysts; p = 0.0002 and p = 0.0008), younger age (< 35 years of age; p = 0.0006), and development of new neurological symptoms (p < 0.0001). Cyst size at symptom production depended on anatomical location (p < 0.0001; largest to smallest were found, successively, in the cerebellum, spinal cord, and brainstem). The most common location for peritumoral cysts was the cerebellum (184 cysts [63%]; p < 0.0001).Peritumoral cysts frequently underlie symptom formation that requires surgical intervention in patients with VHL disease. Development of new cysts was associated with a larger number of cysts at study enrollment and younger age. Total peritumoral cyst burden was associated with germline partial deletion of the VHL gene.
PubMed | Surgical Neurology Branch and., Johns Hopkins University, U.S. National Institutes of Health and Surgical Neurology Branch and
Type: Clinical Trial | Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2014
Reinstatement of neural activity is hypothesized to underlie our ability to mentally travel back in time to recover the context of a previous experience. We used intracranial recordings to directly examine the precise spatiotemporal extent of neural reinstatement as 32 participants with electrodes placed for seizure monitoring performed a paired-associates episodic verbal memory task. By cueing recall, we were able to compare reinstatement during correct and incorrect trials, and found that successful retrieval occurs with reinstatement of a gradually changing neural signal present during encoding. We examined reinstatement in individual frequency bands and individual electrodes and found that neural reinstatement was largely mediated by temporal lobe theta and high-gamma frequencies. Leveraging the high temporal precision afforded by intracranial recordings, our data demonstrate that high-gamma activity associated with reinstatement preceded theta activity during encoding, but during retrieval this difference in timing between frequency bands was absent. Our results build upon previous studies to provide direct evidence that successful retrieval involves the reinstatement of a temporal context, and that such reinstatement occurs with precise spatiotemporal dynamics.
PubMed | Surgical Neurology Branch and., U.S. National Institutes of Health and Surgical Neurology Branch and
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience | Year: 2015
Neural activity preceding an event can influence subsequent memory formation, yet the precise cortical dynamics underlying this activity and the associated cognitive states remain unknown. We investigate these questions here by examining intracranial EEG recordings as 28 participants with electrodes placed for seizure monitoring participated in a verbal paired-associates memory task. We found that, preceding successfully remembered word pairs, an orientation cue triggered a low-frequency 2-4 Hz phase reset in the right temporoparietal junction with concurrent increases in low-frequency power across cortical regions that included the prefrontal cortex and left temporal lobe. Regions that exhibited a significant increase in 2-4 Hz power were functionally bound together through progressive low-frequency 2-4 Hz phase synchrony. Our data suggest that the interaction between power and phase synchrony reflects the engagement of attentional networks that in large part determine the extent to which memories are successfully encoded.Here we investigate the spatiotemporal cortical dynamics that precede successful memory encoding. Using intracranial EEG, we observed significant changes in oscillatory power, intertrial phase consistency, and pairwise phase synchrony that predict successful encoding. Our data suggest that the interaction between power and phase synchrony reflects the engagement of attentional networks that in large part determine the extent to which memories are successfully encoded.
PubMed | Surgical Neurology Branch and.
Type: Clinical Trial | Journal: Journal of neurosurgery | Year: 2014
The tumors most frequently associated with von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease are hemangioblastomas. While they are associated with significant neurological impairment and mortality, their natural history and optimal management have not been fully defined.Patients with VHL were enrolled in a prospective study designed to define the natural history of CNS hemangioblastomas. In the present analysis, serial imaging, laboratory, genetic, and clinical data were evaluated in those with at least 2 years of follow-up data.At study entrance 225 patients (111 males, 114 females) harbored 1921 CNS hemangioblastomas in the supratentorial compartment (21 tumors [1%]), cerebellum (865 [45%]), brainstem (129 [7%]), spinal cord (689 [36%]), cauda equina (212 [11%]), and nerve roots (5 [0.3%]; follow-up 15,819 hemangioblastoma-years). Increased tumor burden was associated with partial deletions in the VHL gene (p = 0.005) and male sex (p = 0.002). Hemangioblastoma development (median 0.3 new tumors/year) was associated with younger age (p < 0.0001) and more tumors at study entrance (p < 0.0001). While 1278 hemangioblastomas (51%) did not grow, 1227 hemangioblastomas (49%) grew in a saltatory (886 [72%]), linear (76 [6%]), or exponential (264 [22%]) pattern. Faster tumor growth was associated with male sex (p = 0.001), symptomatic tumors (p < 0.0001), and tumors associated with cysts (p < 0.0001). Location-dependent tumor size was the primary predictor of eventual symptom formation (159 symptomatic tumors [6.3%]; area under the curve > 0.9).Central nervous system hemangioblastoma burden in VHL is associated with partial germline deletions and male sex. Unpredictable growth of hemangioblastomas compromises assessment of nonsurgical therapies. The judicious treatment of symptom-producing hemangioblastomas, while avoiding unnecessary treatment of asymptomatic tumors that may not progress, can provide clinical stability.