Pittsburgh, PA, United States
Pittsburgh, PA, United States

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Madigan M.C.,Surgery Services | Madigan M.C.,University of Pittsburgh | McEnaney R.M.,Surgery Services | McEnaney R.M.,University of Pittsburgh | And 12 more authors.
Molecular Medicine | Year: 2015

Chronic, nonhealing wounds result in patient morbidity and disability. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) are both required for normal wound repair, and derangements of these result in impaired healing. Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) has the unique capacity to produce both ROS and NO. We hypothesize that XOR contributes to normal wound healing. Cutaneous wounds were created in C57Bl6 mice. XOR was inhibited with dietary tungsten or allopurinol. Topical hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, 0.15%) or allopurinol (30 μg) was applied to wounds every other day. Wounds were monitored until closure or collected at d 5 to assess XOR expression and activity, cell proliferation and histology. The effects of XOR, nitrite, H2O2 and allopurinol on keratinocyte cell (KC) and endothelial cell (EC) behavior were assessed. We identified XOR expression and activity in the skin and wound edges as well as granulation tissue. Cultured human KCs also expressed XOR. Tungsten significantly inhibited XOR activity and impaired healing with reduced ROS production with reduced angiogenesis and KC proliferation. The expression and activity of other tungsten- sensitive enzymes were minimal in the wound tissues. Oral allopurinol did not reduce XOR activity or alter wound healing but topical allopurinol significantly reduced XOR activity and delayed healing. Topical H2O2 restored wound healing in tungsten-fed mice. In vitro, nitrite and H2O2 both stimulated KC and EC proliferation and EC migration. These studies demonstrate for the first time that XOR is abundant in wounds and participates in normal wound healing through effects on ROS production. © 2015, Uninversity of Michigan. All rights reserved.


McEnaney R.M.,Surgery Services | McEnaney R.M.,University of Pittsburgh | Shukla A.,Surgery Services | Shukla A.,University of Pittsburgh | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Vascular Surgery | Year: 2016

Objective Arteriogenesis represents the maturation of preformed vascular connections in response to flow changes and shear stress. These collateral vessels can restore up to 60% of the native blood flow. Shear stress and vascular injury can induce the release of nucleotides from vascular smooth muscle cells and platelets that can serve as signaling ligands, suggesting they may be involved in mediating arteriogenesis. The P2Y2 nucleotide receptor (P2Y2R) has also been shown to mediate smooth muscle migration and arterial remodeling. Thus, we hypothesize that P2Y2R mediates arteriogenesis in response to ischemia. Methods Hind limb ischemia was induced by femoral artery ligation (FAL) in C57Bl/6NJ or P2Y2R negative mice (P2Y2 -/-). Hind limb perfusion was measured with laser Doppler perfusion imaging and compared with the sham-operated contralateral limb immediately and at 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after ligation. Collateral vessel size was measured by Microfil casting. Muscle specimens were harvested and analyzed with immunohistochemistry for Ki67, vascular cell adhesion molecule, macrophages, and muscle viability by hematoxylin and essoin stain. Results Hind limb ischemia induced by FAL in C57Bl/6NJ mice resulted in significant ischemia as measured by laser Doppler perfusion imaging. There was rapid recovery to nearly normal levels of perfusion by 2 weeks. FAL in P2Y2 -/- mice resulted in severe ischemia with greater tissue loss. Recovery of perfusion was impaired, achieving only 40% compared with wild-type mice by 28 days. Collateral vessels in the P2Y2 -/- mice were underdeveloped, with reduced vascular cell proliferation and smaller vessel size. The collaterals were ∼65% the size of wild-type collateral vessels (P =.011). Angiogenesis at 28 days in the ischemic muscle, however, was greater in the P2Y2 -/- mice (P <.001), possibly related to persistent ischemia leading and angiogenic drive. Early macrophage recruitment was reduced by nearly 70% in P2Y2 -/- despite significantly more myocyte necrosis. However, inflammation was greater at 28 days in the P2Y2 -/- mice. Conclusions P2Y2R deficiency does not alter baseline collateral vessel formation but does significantly impair collateral maturation, with resultant persistent limb ischemia despite enhanced angiogenesis. These findings reinforce the importance of arteriogenesis in the recovery of perfusion in ischemic tissues compared with angiogenesis. They also support the role of P2Y2R in mediating this process. The mechanism by which P2Y2R mediates arteriogenesis may involve the recruitment of inflammatory cells to the ischemic tissues, which is essential to arteriogenesis. Approaches to target P2Y2R may yield new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of arterial occlusive disease.


PubMed | University of Pittsburgh and Surgery Services
Type: | Journal: Molecular medicine (Cambridge, Mass.) | Year: 2015

Chronic, nonhealing wounds result in patient morbidity and disability. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) are both required for normal wound repair, and derangements of these result in impaired healing. Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) has the unique capacity to produce both ROS and NO. We hypothesize that XOR contributes to normal wound healing. Cutaneous wounds were created in C57Bl6 mice. XOR was inhibited with dietary tungsten or allopurinol. Topical hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, 0.15%) or allopurinol (30 g) was applied to wounds every other day. Wounds were monitored until closure or collected at d 5 to assess XOR expression and activity, cell proliferation and histology. The effects of XOR, nitrite, H2O2 and allopurinol on keratinocyte cell (KC) and endothelial cell (EC) behavior were assessed. We identified XOR expression and activity in the skin and wound edges as well as granulation tissue. Cultured human KCs also expressed XOR. Tungsten significantly inhibited XOR activity and impaired healing with reduced ROS production with reduced angiogenesis and KC proliferation. The expression and activity of other tungsten-sensitive enzymes were minimal in the wound tissues. Oral allopurinol did not reduce XOR activity or alter wound healing but topical allopurinol significantly reduced XOR activity and delayed healing. Topical H2O2 restored wound healing in tungsten-fed mice. In vitro, nitrite and H2O2 both stimulated KC and EC proliferation and EC migration. These studies demonstrate for the first time that XOR is abundant in wounds and participates in normal wound healing through effects on ROS production.

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